Table 5

Concentrations of transmitters in the vesicle, synaptic cleft, and extracellular space

ConcentrationTransmitterLocationReference
Vesicle90 mMDABrain (rat) Floor et al., 1995
10 mMNEHypothalamic synaptosome West and Fillenz, 1980
90 mM5-HTDorsal raphe Bunin and Wightman, 1998, 1999
60–210 mMGluHippocampus Burger et al., 1989; cf.Clements, 1996
60 mMAChNeuromuscular junction Van der Kloot and Molgo, 1994
Synaptic cleft6 mM5-HTDorsal raphe Bunin and Wightman, 1998
∼1 mMAChNeuromuscular junction Matthews-Bellinger and Salpeter, 1978; Kuffler and Yoshikami, 1975
∼1–5 mMGABAHippocampus Clements, 1996
∼1 mMGluHippocampus Clements et al., 1992
Extracellular space55 nM5-HTDorsal raphe substantia nigra Bunin and Wightman, 1998, 1999; Bunin et al., 1998
10 μMGABAHippocampus Destexhe and Sejnowski, 1995
0.2–0.8 μMGABAHippocampus Lerma et al., 1986
5–55 nMNACortex Allgaier et al., 1992
100 nMNAHippocampus Kiss et al., 1995
0.1–1 nMAChHippocampus Moor et al., 1995
3 μMDAStriatum Taber and Fibiger, 1994; Benveniste and Hüttemeier, 1990
0.1–1 μMDAStriatum Kawagoe et al., 1992