Table 1

Localization and relative abundance of PACAP mRNA and PACAP-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain

StructuresmRNACell BodiesFibersReferences
Telencephalon
 Olfactory bulb
  Anterior olfactory nucleus++ Skoglösa et al., 1999c
 Cerebral cortex
  Cingulate cortex++−/++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a; Kivipelto et al., 1992; Mikkelsen et al., 1994; Piggins et al., 1996;Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  Cortex extract++ Hannibal et al., 1995a
  Endopyriform nucleus+ Köves et al., 1994a
  Enthorinal cortex++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a
  Frontal cortex++ Ghatei et al., 1993; Mikkelsen et al., 1994; Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  Hindlimb area+ Köves et al., 1994a
 Septum
  Lateral septal nucleus++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a; Piggins et al., 1996
  Septofimbrial nucleus+ Köves et al., 1991
  Septohippocampal nucleus+ Köves et al., 1994a
 Amygdaloid complex++ Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  Basal lateral nucleus−/+−/+ Köves et al., 1991; Piggins et al., 1996
  Medial nucleus−/+−/+ Köves et al., 1991; Piggins et al., 1996
  Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis−/++++/+++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a;Piggins et al., 1996; Kozicz et al., 1997
  Central amygdaloid nucleus, lateral div.++ Köves et al., 1991,1994a; Kivipelto et al., 1992; Piggins et al., 1996
  Central amygdaloid nucleus, medial div.++ Kivipelto et al., 1992; Piggins et al., 1996
  Lateral amygdaloid nucleus+ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a
  Medial amygdaloid nucleus++ Murase et al., 1995
 Hippocampal formation
  CA1+−/+++ Köves et al., 1994a; Piggins et al., 1996; Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  CA2+−/+++ Köves et al., 1994a; Piggins et al., 1996; Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  CA3+−/+++ Köves et al., 1994a; Piggins et al., 1996; Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  Dentate gyrus++−/+++ Köves et al., 1994a; Murase et al., 1995; Piggins et al., 1996; Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  “middle layer”++++ Köves et al., 1991
 Diagonal band of Broca++ Köves et al., 1994a
 Medial forebrain bundle++ Köves et al., 1994a
Diencephalon
 Epithalamus
  Lateral habenular nucleus++++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a;Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  Pineal gland++ Moller et al., 1999
 Thalamus
  Central medial nucleus++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a
  Mediodorsal nucleus++++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a;Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  Paraventricular nucleus, post. Part+++++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a;Skoglösa et al., 1999c
 Hypothalamus
  Anterior commissure++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a,b
  Anterior commissural nucleus++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a,b
  Anterior hypothalamic area−/+−/++ Köves et al., 1994a,b; Piggins et al., 1996
  Arcuate nucleus++−/+−/++ Kivipelto et al., 1992; Köves et al., 1994a,b; Murase et al., 1995; Piggins et al., 1996
  Hypothalamic extract+++ Ghatei et al., 1993; Hannibal et al., 1995a
  Intermediate hypothalamus nucleus++ Hannibal et al., 1995b
  Lateral anterior hypothalamic nucleus++ Hannibal et al., 1995b
  Lateral hypothalamic area−/+ Hannibal et al., 1995a; Piggins et al., 1996
  Medial preoptic area++ Hannibal et al., 1995b
  Median eminence, internal zone++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a,b;Kivipelto et al., 1992; Kimura et al., 1994; Tamada et al., 1994;Hannibal et al., 1995b; Mikkelsen et al., 1995
  Median eminence, external zone++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a,b;Kivipelto et al., 1992; Kimura et al., 1994; Tamada et al., 1994;Hannibal et al., 1995a,b; Mikkelsen et al., 1995; Piggins et al., 1996
  Paraventricular nucleus+++/+++++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a,b; Kivipelto et al., 1992; Kimura et al., 1994; Tamada et al., 1994; Hannibal et al., 1995a,b
  Perifornical nucleus++ Köves et al., 1991
  Periventricular nucleus++/+++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a,b; Kivipelto et al., 1992; Hannibal et al., 1995a;Piggins et al., 1996
  Posterior hypothalamic area+/++−/+ Köves et al., 1994a,b; Piggins et al., 1996
  Preoptic nucleus++++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a,b; Piggins et al., 1996; Skoglösa et al., 1999c
  Suprachiasmatic nucleus−/++−/++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a,b; Kivipelto et al., 1992; Piggins et al., 1996;Hannibal et al., 1997
  Supraoptic nucleus−/+++/+++ Köves et al., 1991, 1994a,b;Kivipelto et al., 1992; Kimura et al., 1994; Tamada et al., 1994;Hannibal et al., 1995a,b; Piggins et al., 1996
  Supramammillary nucleus−/++−/+ Kivipelto et al., 1992; Piggins et al., 1996
  Tuber cinereum++++ Piggins et al., 1996
  Ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus++++++++ Hannibal et al., 1995a; Skoglösa et al., 1999c
Mesencephalon
  Central gray+ Kivipelto et al., 1992
Metencephalon
 Cerebellum+ Skoglösa et al., 1999b
  Cerebellum extract−/++ Ghatei et al., 1993;Hannibal et al., 1995a
  Granular layer−/++ Kivipelto et al., 1992; Mikkelsen et al., 1994; Nielssen et al., 1998a
  Molecular layer−/++ Kivipelto et al., 1992; Mikkelsen et al., 1994; Nielssen et al., 1998a
  Purkinje layer−/+−/++−/+ Kivipelto et al., 1992; Mikkelsen et al., 1994; Nielssen et al., 1998a; Skoglösa et al., 1999b
Myelencephalon
 Brainstem
  Brainstem extract−/++ Ghatei et al., 1993; Hannibal et al., 1995a
 Medulla oblongata
  A1 noradrenergic cells+ Legradi et al., 1994
  Ambigus nucleus++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Area postrema++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Caudal raphe nuclei++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Dorsal vagal nucleus++++ Legradi et al., 1994
  External cuneate nucleus++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Hypoglossal nucleus++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Magnocellular lateral reticular nucleus+ Legradi et al., 1994
  Pyramidal tract+ Legradi et al., 1994
  Raphe obscurus nucleus++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Raphe pallidus nucleus+++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Solitary nucleus commissural sub.++++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Solitary nucleus medial subnucleus++++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal sub.+++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Ventral medullary surface++ Legradi et al., 1994
  Ventrollateral medulla++ Legradi et al., 1994
  • The symbols provide a semi-quantitative evaluation of the density of PACAP mRNA and PACAP-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers. +++, high density; ++, moderate density; +, low density; −, no hybridization or immunohistochemical signal; div., division; sub., subnucleus.