Table 2

Localization and relative abundance of PACAP mRNA and PACAP-like immunoreactivity in rat peripheral tissues

StructuresmRNACell BodiesFibersReferences
Peripheral nervous system
 Cardiac ganglia+++ Braas et al., 1998
 Dorsal root ganglia++++ Mulder et al., 1994; Zhang et al., 1996, 1998; Jongsma et al., 2000; Vizzard, 2000
 Parasympathetic ganglia++++Mulder et al., 1995
 Spinal cord ganglia+++ Moller et al., 1993;Dun et al., 1996; Nielsen et al., 1998b
 Submucosal ganglia that control ileum+ Nagahama et al., 1998
 Superior cervical ganglia++/++++ Klimaschewski et al., 1996;Brandenburg et al., 1997; Moller et al., 1997a,b; Nogi et al., 1997a;Nielsen et al., 1998b
 Trigeminal ganglia++++ Moller et al., 1993; Mulder et al., 1994;Dun et al., 1996b
Eye
 Ganglion cells of the retina++ Hannibal et al., 1997
 Retinal papilla++ Hannibal et al., 1997; Seki et al., 2000
Endocrine glands
 Anterior pituitary−/++ Vigh et al., 1993; Kimura et al., 1994; Mikkelsen et al., 1995; Köves et al., 1998
  FS, GH, PRL, and ACTH cells++ Vigh et al., 1993
  TSH, LH, and FSH cells+ Vigh et al., 1993
 Neurohypophysis++ Mikkelsen et al., 1995
 Adrenal gland+ Ghatei et al., 1993
  Cortex+ Frödin et al., 1995; Shiotani et al., 1995
  Medulla+−/+−/+ Frödin et al., 1995; Shiotani et al., 1995; Dun et al., 1996b; Moller and Sundler, 1996; Nielsen et al., 1998b
  Chromaffin cells+−/+−/+ Tabarin et al., 1994; Dun et al., 1996;Holgert et al., 1996; Moller and Sundler, 1996
  Subcapsular region+ Holgert et al., 1996
 Endocrine pancreas++ Filipsson et al., 1998a; Hannibal and Fahrenkrug, 2000
 Mammary gland++ Skakkebaek et al., 1999
Gonads+ Fahrenkrug and Hannibal, 1996c
 Testis++ Hurley et al., 1995
  Early germ cells++ Kononen et al., 1994; Hannibal and Fahrenkrug, 1995
  Spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes++++ Shioda et al., 1994; Hannibal et al., 1995c; Hannibal and Fahrenkrug, 1995
  Acrosomal caps and acrosomes of immature spermatids++++ Shioda et al., 1994; Hannibal et al., 1995c; Yanaihara et al., 1998
  Mature spermatids Hannibal et al., 1995c; Yanaihara et al., 1998
  Epididymal spermatozoa Leung et al., 1998
  Sertoli cells Kononen et al., 1994; Shioda et al., 1994; Hannibal et al., 1995c
  Leydig cells Shioda et al., 1994
  Epithelial cells from epidymydal tubules+ Leung et al., 1998
 Ovary++ Fahrenkrug and Hannibal, 1996; Gräs et al., 1996; Scaldaferri et al., 1996; Lee et al., 1999a
  Granulosa and cumulus cells++++ Gräs et al., 1996; Shioda et al., 1996; Koh et al., 2000
Placenta++ Scaldaferri et al., 2000
Urinary tract
 Epithelium++ Fahrenkrug and Hannibal, 1998
 Smooth musculature++ Radziszewski et al., 1996;Fahrenkrug and Hannibal, 1998
 Urinary bladder++ Moller et al., 1993; Fahrenkrug and Hannibal, 1998
 Urethra+ Ishizuka et al., 1995; Radziszewski et al., 1996
Respiratory tract
 Larynx++ Moller et al., 1993
 Lung++ Uddman et al., 1991b; Moller et al., 1993
 Nose++ Moller et al., 1993
 Tongue++ Moller et al., 1993
 Tracheo-bronchial wall++ Uddman et al., 1991b;Moller et al., 1993
Digestive system
 Exocrine pancreas++ Fridolf et al., 1992; Hannibal and Fahrenkrug, 2000
 Myenteric ganglia+/−++ Sundler et al., 1992; Moller et al., 1993; Hannibal et al., 1998; Nagahama et al., 1998
 Salivary gland Hauser-Kronberger et al., 1992
 Smooth muscle++++/++ Uddman et al., 1991a; Sundler et al., 1992; Köves et al., 1993; Hannibal et al., 1998
 Submucus ganglia of the intestine+++ Hannibal et al., 1998; Nagahama et al., 1998
Lymphoid tissues
 Bone marrow+ Gaytan et al., 1994
 Duodenal mucosa+ Gaytan et al., 1994
 Lymph nodes++ Gaytan et al., 1994
 Peritoneal macrophages+ Pozo et al., 1997
 Spleen++ Gaytan et al., 1994
 Thymus+ Gaytan et al., 1994
Skin
 Dermal neurons++ Odum et al., 1998
  • The symbols provide a semi-quantitative evaluation of the density of PACAP mRNA and PACAP-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers. +++, high density; ++, moderate density; +, low density; −, no hybridization or immunohistochemical signal.