Table 1

Characteristics of GRK family members

Family NameSize (kDa)Polypeptide VariantsTissue Distribution1-aCovalent ModificationActivatorsInactivators
GRK1 (rhodopsin kinase)63N.D.Retina (ROS) > pinealFarnesylationPolycationsRecoverin
GRK2 (βARK1)79N.D. pbl > cx > h > lu > k N.D.Gβγ, PIP2, PKC, c-SrcMAPK
GRK3 (βARK2)80N.D. olf > b > s > h > lu > k N.D.Gβγ, PIP2 N.D.
GRK466Four t >>> b PalmitoylationN.D.N.D.
GRK568N.D. h, lu > sk > b,l > k N.D.Polycations, PIP2 PKC, calmodulin
GRK666Yes b, sk ≫ h, lu, k > l PalmitoylationPolycationsN.D.
GRK762N.D.Retina (cone)N.D.N.D.N.D.
(Farnesylation?)
  • N.D., not determined.

  • 1-a  As determined by mRNA expression:b, brain; cx, cerebral cortex; h, heart; l, liver; lu, lung; k, kidney;olf, olfactory tubercle; pbl, primary blood leukocytes; s, spleen; sk, skeletal muscle;t, testes. PIP2, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate; ROS, rod outer segment.

  • References used: Arriza et al., 1992; Inglese et al., 1992; Pitcher et al., 1992, 1995, 1999; Benovic and Gomez, 1993; Dawson et al., 1993;Kunapuli and Benovic, 1993; Parruti et al., 1993a; Kunapuli et al., 1994; Premont et al., 1994, 1996; Stoffel et al., 1994; Touhara et al., 1994; Chuang et al., 1995; Winstel et al., 1996; Stoffel et al., 1998;Weiss et al., 1998; Iacovelli et al., 1999; Sarnago et al., 1999;Elorza et al., 2000.