Table 1

Values for blood levels of creatine and creatine transporter KMacross species

SpeciesBlood CrKm
μM μM
Bovine1871-a(Dodd et al., 1999)
Dog30,000 (Lowe et al., 1998), 50–100  (Harris and Lowe, 1995)
Human50–100 (Harris et al., 1992;  Marescau et al., 1986)15,1-a20,1-f301-c (Ku and Passow, 1980; Loike et al., 1986; Sora et al., 1994)
Mouse200 (Marescau et al., 1986)45,1-d1101-e (Moller and Hamprecht, 1989; Odoom et al., 1996)
Rabbit150 (Marescau et al., 1986)351-a (Guimbal and Kilimann, 1993)
Rat500–600 (Horn et al., 1998;  Marescau et al., 1986)22,1-a46,1-a73,1-b160,1-b500,1-b40–60,1-e 45 (Fitch and Shields, 1966; Fitch et al., 1968;Moller  and Hamprecht, 1989; Schloss et al., 1994; Willott et al., 1999)
140 (Fitch and Shields, 1966)
  • 1-a  Cloned transporter.

  • 1-b  Intact muscle.

  • 1-c  White blood cell.

  • 1-d  Astroglia.

  • 1-e  Cell culture (L6 or G8).

  • 1-f  Red blood cell.