TABLE 2

GRKs and β-arrestins in dopamine receptor functions

GRK or β-ArrestinFunction AffectedReferences
GRK2Minor locomotor supersensitivity to cocaine in GRK2 heterozygous miceGainetdinov et al., 2004
GRK3Decreased locomotor responses to cocaine and apomorphine in GRK3 knockout miceGainetdinov et al., 2004
GRK4Normal locomotor responses to cocaineGainetdinov et al., 2004
Hypertension-associated polymorphic variants of GRK4 cause persistent D1 dopamine receptor desensitization and a loss of dopamine-dependent salt and fluid excretionFelder et al., 2002
GRK5Normal responses to dopaminergic drugsGainetdinov et al., 1999a
GRK6Central D2 dopamine receptor supersensitivity and enhanced locomotor responses to cocaine, amphetamine, morphine and dopaminergic agonists in GRK6 deficient miceGainetdinov et al., 2003; Raehal et al., 2009
Reduced l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease after lentivirus-mediated overexpression of striatal GRK6Ahmed et al., 2010
Exacerbated l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in animals with decreased striatal GRK6 levelsAhmed et al., 2010
β-Arrestin 1Reduced locomotor responses to cocaine and apomorphine in β-arrestin 1 knockout miceGainetdinov et al., 2004
β-Arrestin 2Reduced locomotor responses to amphetamine, apomorphine, and morphine, but not cocaine, in β-arrestin 2 knockout miceBohn et al., 2003; Gainetdinov et al., 2004; Urs et al., 2011
Lack of D2 dopamine receptor-mediated Akt/GSK-3 signaling in the striatum of β-arrestin 2 knockout miceBeaulieu et al., 2005, 2007a