TABLE 2

Selected effects mediated by adenosine via the four adenosine receptors

For this table we have predominantly used data from genetically modified organisms.

ReceptorEffectPhysiology/PathophysiologyEvidence for AdaptationReference
A1Decreased renal blood flow, Tubuloglomerular feedbackPhysNoBrown et al., 2001; Sun et al., 2001
Inhibition of lipolysisPhysNoJohansson et al., 2008
Vasoconstriction??Tawfik et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2010
Inhibition of neurotransmitter releaseExtreme physNo?Johansson et al., 2001
Inhibition of insulin/glucagon releasePhysNoJohansson et al., 2007a
Reduced heart ratePhysNo?Yang et al., 2007
Osteoclast activation, bone resorptionPhys?No?Kara et al., 2010a,b
SleepPhysYesStenberg et al., 2003; Oishi et al., 2008
Goldman et al. 2010
AcupunctureExtreme phys??
Prevention of epilepsyPath?Fedele et al. 2006; Li et al. 2007; Kochanek et al 2006
Hua et al., 2007a
BronchoconstrictionPath?
AnalgesiaExtreme physNoJohansson et al., 2001; Wu et al., 2005
PreconditioningPathNoSchulte et al., 2004; Lankford et al., 2006
Wendler et al. 2007
Tolerance to hypoxiaPathNo?
A2AWakefulness, locomotionPhysNoLedent et al., 1997; El Yacoubi et al., 2000; Chen et al., 2000; Huang et al., 2005
Neurodegeneration (including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease)PathNoChen et al., 1999, 2001b, 2007
ImmunosuppressionExtreme/PathNo?Ohta and Sitkovsky, 2001; Lappas et al., 2005; Ohta et al., 2007
Vasodilatation/hypotensionPhys/ExtremeNo?Ledent et al., 1997
Coronary vasodilatationPhys/ExtremeYes?Morrison et al., 2002
Inhibition of platelet aggregationExtremeNo?Ledent et al., 1997
AngiogenesisExtremeNo?Montesinos et al., 2002
A2BVascular integrityPhys/ExtremeNoYang et al., 2006, 2008
PreconditioningExtremeNoEckle et al., 2007
A3Increased mast cell activationExtreme/PathNo?Salvatore et al., 2000; Tilley et al., 2000
Airway contractionPathNo?Hua et al., 2008
Inflammatory painExtreme/PathNo?Wu et al., 2002
White cell chemotaxisExtreme/PathNo?Chen et al., 2006