TABLE 1

Superfamilies of conopeptides, occurrence in different Conus spp. clades and prey targets, and post-translational modifications (PTMs)

Data from Conoserver (http://www.conoserver.org).

SuperfamilyCysteine FrameworkFamilySpeciesCladesDietPTMs
AI, II, IV, XIVα, κ, ρ43E, I, II, III, V, VI, VII, X, XII, XIV, XV, XVIIV, M, PO, *, γ, G, Z, Ys
DXXα6XIIVO, γ
I1VI/VII, XIι11E, I, V, X, XIV, XVIIV, M, PO, BrW, *, D, γ
I2XI, XIIκ17I, V, VI, X, XII, XIII, XVIIV, M, PO, *, γ
I3VI/VII, XI3XIVV
JXIVκ2IXV*
LXIVα2EV, P
MIII, IV, VI/VII, IX, XVIα, ι, κ, μ28E, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, X, XII, XIV, XVI, XVIIV, M, PO, *, D
O1VI/VII, XIIδ, γ, κ, μO, ω53E, I, II, III, V, VI, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVIIV, M, PO, BrW, *, γ
O2VI/VII, XVγ15I, V, VI, VII, X, XII, XIII, XIV, XVIV, M, PO, BrW, *, γ
O3VI/VII6V, VII, XIV, XVIV, M, P
PIX6V, X, XVIIV, M*, γ
SVIIIα, σ6I, II, V, XIVV, M, PO, BrW, *, γ
TI, V, X, XVIχ, ε, μ24E, II, III, V, VI, VII, X, XII, XIII, XIV, XVI, XVIIV, M, PO, BrW, *, γ, G, Z
VXV2XIIIV*
YXVII1XIVVO
  • E, early clade; P, fish; M, molluscs; V, worms;

  • * , C-terminal amidation; O, hydroproline; BrW, bromotryptophane; D, d-amino acid; γ, γ-carboxyglutamate; γ-Val, γ-hydroxyvaline; G, glycosylation; Z, pyroglutamate; Ys, sulfotyrosine.