TABLE 7

κ-Conotoxins inhibiting Kv potassium channels (κA/M-conotoxin loop formula C0C6–7CC2–4C0–3C)

Lower-case serine or threonine residues are glycosylated, and the lower case tryptophan is a d-amino acid. Cysteines are bolded and aligned separately for the different κ-conotoxin classes, with residues affecting potassium channel affinity underlined.

SpeciesNameDietSequence (Disulfide Bonding Likely 1–4/2–5/3–6)Selectivity (Kvx)References
123456
κM- and κA- Conotoxins
    C. radiatusRIIIJP--------LOOCCTOOKKH-COAOACKYKOC---CKS1.2Chen et al., 2010
RIIIKP--------LPSCCSLNLRL-CPVPACKRNPC---CT*TSha1 ∼ Shaker ∼ 1.2 > 1.5 ∼ 1.6 ∼ 1.1 ∼ 1.3 ∼ 1.4Chen et al., 2010; Ferber et al., 2003, 2004; Al-Sabi et al., 2004
    C. consorsCcTxPAOWLVPsQITTCCGYNOGTMCOSCMCTNT-CFavreau et al., 1999
    C. magusMIVAPAOγLVVtAtTNCCGYNOMTICOO--CM---CTYSCOOKRKO*?Santos et al., 2004
    C. purpurascensPIVEP----------DCCGVKLEM-CHP--C---LCDNSCKNYGK*Frog, fishTeichert et al., 2007a
PIVFP----------DCCGVKLEM-CHP--C---LCDNSCKKSGK*?Teichert et al., 2007a
    C. striatusSIVAPZKSLVPsVITTCCGYDOGTMCOO--CR---CTNSC*Frog, fish, ShakerCraig et al., 1998; Santos et al., 2004
SIVBPZKELVPsVITTCCGYDOGTMCOO--CR---CTNSCOTKOKKO*?Santos et al., 2004
    C. stercusmuscarumSmIVAPZTWLVPstITTCCGYDOGTMCOT--CM---CDNTCKOKOKKS*?Santos et al., 2004
SmIVBPZPWLVPstITTCCGYDOGSMCOO--CM---CNNTCKOKOKKS?Santos et al., 2004
Other κ-conotoxins
    C. planorbispl14aV---FPRPRICNLACRAGIGHKYPFCHCR*1.6 > 1.1 > 1.2 ∼ 1.3 ∼ 1.4 ∼ 1.5 ∼ 2.1 ∼ 3.4Imperial et al., 2006
    C. virgoViTxVSRCFPPGIYC-TSYLPCCWGICC-STCRNVCHLRIGK1.1 ∼ 1.3 > 1.2Kauferstein et al., 2003
    C. spuriussr11aV--CRTEGMSCγγNQQ-CCWRSCCRGECEAPCRFGP*1.2 ∼ 1.6 > 1.3Aguilar et al., 2007, 2010
    C. betulinusBeTXV--CRAγGTYC-γNDSQCCLNγCCWGGCGHOCRHP*BKFan et al., 2003
    C. purpurascensPVIIAP--CRIPNQKCFQHLDDCCSRKCNRFNKCV*Shaker KvHuang et al., 2005
    C. striatusConkunitzin-S1PKDRPSLCDLPADSGSGTKAEKRIYYNSARKQCLRFDYTGQG GNENNFRRTYDCQRTCLShaker KvBayrhuber et al., 2005
    C. ventricosusContryphan-VnPGDCPwKPWC*Voltage-gated and Ca2+-dependent K+ channelsMassilia et al., 2003
  • P, fish; M, molluscs; V, worms;

  • * , C-terminal amidation; TSha1, from trout, frog Kv, the skeletal muscle form; BK, Ca2+/voltage-dependent potassium channel.