Table 1

A reference guide for the treatment concepts embodied in this review, and their consequences, either intended by the authors or predictable from the literature

Treatment ConceptsPredictable Consequences in the BrainPredictable Downstream Consequences in the BrainReference
apoE mimetics↓ TNF↓ Insulin resistanceLaskowitz et al., 2001
Thalidomide derivatives↓ TNF↓ Insulin resistanceGreig et al., 2004a
Anti-TNF biologicals↓ TNF↓ Insulin resistanceTobinick et al., 2006
Minocycline↓ TNF↓ Insulin resistanceSeabrook et al.. 2006
Leuprolide↓ TNF↓ Insulin resistanceClark and Atwood, 2011
Curcumin derivatives↓ TNF↓ Insulin resistanceTsai et al., 2011
Erythropoietin↓ TNF↓ Insulin resistanceNairz et al., 2011a
Bexarotene↓ TNF↓ Insulin resistanceCramer et al. 2012
GLP-1 mimetics↓ Insulin resistance↓ GSK3 activationPerry et al., 2003
Intranasal insulin↓ Insulin resistance↓ GSK3 activationBenedict et al., 2004
Leptin↓ Insulin resistance↓ GSK3 activationKoch et al., 2010
DPP-4 inhibitors↓ Insulin resistance↓ GSK3 activationD'Amico et al., 2010
GSK-3 antagonists↓ GSK3 activation↓ Harmful enzyme phosphorylationOnishi et al., 2011
  • ↓, reduction.