Summary of convergent data

ExposureConfirmed placental passageConfirmed placental passageIn utero fetal exposure is likely similar to that in the mother.
Confirmed presence in breast milkConfirmed presence in breast milkExposure is substantially less but measurable. Physiologic significance not known but probably minimal.
Obstetrical outcomeDecreased birth weightDecreased birth weightThe majority use weight as continuous variable and clinical significance is not clear.
Neonatal periodIncreased motor activity/jitterinessIncreased motor activity/jitterinessLimited to subgroup of the exposed offspring.
Altered sleep architectureAltered sleep architecture
Persistent pulmonary hypertensionIncreased riskIncreased risk