TABLE 9

Phytochemicals that modify insulin signaling

PhytochemicalTarget Tissue/CellsEffectsInvolved Molecular MechanismReference
CurcuminSkeletal muscle of diabetic ratsImprove insulin resistanceMediated through LKB1-AMPKNa et al. (2011)
Epicatechin gallatedb/db miceReduce the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans and increase the number and the size of isletsEnhanced glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretionOrtsäter et al. (2012)
db/db miceIncrease glucokinase mRNA expression in the liverEnhanced glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretionWolfram et al. (2006)
Quecitrin and quercetinDiabetic ratsExhibit a protective role on the pancreatic isletsIncreased insulin sensitivityBabujanarthanam et al. (2010)
Diabetic miceImprove liver and pancreas functions by enabling the recovery of cell proliferationIncreased insulin sensitivity through the inhibition of Cdkn1a expressionKobori et al. (2009)
GenisteinDiabetic miceIncrease blood glucose, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid profileIncreased insulin sensitivityLee (2006)
ResveratrolCaucasian (blood)Improve insulin sensitivity and decrease insulin resistanceDecreased oxidative stress and more efficient insulin signaling via the Akt pathwayBrasnyó et al. (2011)
Piceatannoldb/db miceAntidiabetic effectImproved glucose toleranceMinakawa et al. (2012)
Bilberry anthocyaninsEnhance insulin sensitivityIncreased AMPK phosphorylationTakikawa et al. (2010)
Hesperidin and naringindb/db micePEPCK and G6Pase expressionIncreased plasma insulinJung et al. (2004)
Epicatechin gallateC2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cellAntiobesity and anti-type 2 diabetes mellitusAttenuated insulin resistanceDeng et al. (2012)
Flavonoid composition of cranberry extractLiver and muscle (mice)Downregulation of the hepatic cholesterol synthesis pathwayAmelioration of insulin resistanceShabrova et al. (2011)
TroxerutinHippocampus (mice)A possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in T2DEnhanced insulin signaling pathwayLu et al. (2011)
ResveratrolHigh-fat diet–fed miceProtect islets from abnormal insulin secretionPromoted the expression of SIRT1 in islets and Bcl-2/Bax and levels of malondialdehyde/glutathione peroxidaseZhang et al. (2012b)
Fructose-fed ratsIncrease nuclear level of NRF2Attenuated insulin resistanceBagul et al. (2012)
High-fat diet–fed miceProduce changes associated with longer lifespanIncreased insulin sensitivity, reduced insulin-like growth factor-1Baur et al. (2006)
Gray mouse lemursBeneficial effects on metabolic alterationsIncreased insulin sensitivity by improving the glucose toleranceMarchal et al. (2012)
CurcuminHigh-fat diet–fed miceInhibit lipogenic gene expression in the liver and blocked and the inflammatory response in the adipose tissueInduced insulin resistanceShao et al. (2012)
Epicatechin gallateHigh-fat diet–fed miceAttenuate levels of plasma cholesterol, MCP-1, CRP, IL-6, and GCSFImproved glucose tolerance Insulin resistanceChen et al. (2011b)
High-fat diet–fed ratsIncrease markers of thermogenesis and differentiation in adipose tissueIncreased glucose toleranceChen et al. (2009b)
High-fat diet–fed ratsDecrease liver weight, liver triglycerides, and mesenteric fat weight and blood glucose compared with high-fat–fed control miceAttenuated insulin resistanceBose et al. (2008)
CinnamonMouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyteRegulate the expression of multiple genes in adipocytesIncreased insulin signalingCao et al. (2010)
ResveratrolHC-fed miceReduce IGF-I levels/increased AMPK, PGC-1α activity, and mitochondrial numberIncreased insulin sensitivity, reduced IGF-1Baur et al. (2006)
Adipocyte (HF-rat)Improve the metabolic profile of HF-fed offspring born from pregnancies complicated by IUGRAmeliorated insulin resistance and glucose intoleranceDolinsky et al. (2011)
Flavonoid compounds isolated from Hyphaene thebaica epicarpRatAntidiabetic effectsImproved glucose and insulin toleranceSalib et al. (2013)
Tetrahydro iso-α acidsHigh-fat diet–fed miceAntidiabetic effectsIncreased insulin sensitivityEverard et al. (2012)
Purple corn color anthocyanidinT2D miceLipogenic gene expressionIncreased serum insulin levelRoy et al. (2008)
Cyanidin-3-glucosidedb/db mice and HF-fed obese micePhosphorylation of Akt, FOXO1Improved insulin sensitivityGuo et al. (2012)
  • AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; GCSF, granulocyte cell-stimulating factor; HC, high calorie; HF, high fat; IL, interleukin; IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; LKB-1, liver kinase B1; MCP, monocyte chemotactic protein; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; PGC-1α, PPARγ coactivator 1α; T2D, type 2 diabetes mellitus.