Phytochemicals that activate PPAR signaling

PhytochemicalTarget Tissue/CellsEffectsInvolved Molecular MechanismReference
CurcuminHuman hepatoma HepG2 cellsInhibit oleic acid–induced hepatic lipogenesis and hepatic antioxidative abilityIncreased the expression of PPARαKang et al. (2013)
Type 2 diabetic KK-Ay miceExhibit hypoglycemic effects and stimulated human adipocyte differentiationActivated PPARγNishiyama et al. (2005); Kuroda et al. (2005)
HSCsActivated PPARγShapiro and Bruck (2005)
Eker rat–derived uterine leiomyoma cell linesInhibit of cell proliferationActed as PPARγ ligandTsuiji et al. (2011)
DiosgeninSTZ-induced type 2 diabetes model of ratsModulate glucose level and decreased oxidative stress and lipid accumulationInteracted PPARα and PPARγSangeetha et al. (2013)
Whole grape powderDahl salt-sensitive hypertensive ratsReduce blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, and diastolic dysfunctionEnhanced cardiac PPARα and PPARγ, but decreased NF-κBSeymour et al. (2010)
Betulinic acid and glycyrrhetinic acidHuman colon and pancreatic cancer cellsInduce cytotoxicityActivated PPARγChintharlapalli et al. (2007a,b)
MHY 966Melanin-possessing hairless mice 2Modulate UVB-induced inflammatory responsesActivated PPAR α and PPARγPark et al. (2013)
ResveratrolMCAO stroke mice modelReduce brain infarct volumeActivated PPARα and PPARγInoue et al. (2003)
Primary cultured cortical neuronsInhibit MMP-9 and protected neurons from OGD injuryUpregulation of PPARαCheng et al. (2009)
GenisteinPrimary cultured cortical astrocytesDecrease inflammatory responses to AβIncreased PPARγ expressionValles et al. (2010)
DaidzeinOGD from rat cortical neuronsDecrease cell death and improve synaptic functionIncreased PPARγ activity in the nucleusHurtado et al. (2012)
NaringeninHuman hepatocyte carcinoma Huh7 cell lineIncrease fatty acid oxidation and decrease cholesterol and bile acid productionActivated PPARα and PPARγGoldwasser et al. (2010)
CurcuminRat middle cerebral artery occlusion modelDecrease the infarct volume, neuronal damage and improve neurologic deficitsUpregulated PPARγ expression and PPARγ activityLiu et al. (2013c)
Primary cultured astrocytesDecrease Aβ-induced inflammatory mediatorsActivated PPARγWang et al. (2010a)
Mice intracerebroventricular STZ-induced dementia modelImprove STZ-induced memory deficits and modulate AChE activity and oxidative stressActivated PPARγRinwa et al. (2010)
HSCsInhibit ERK activity and stimulate the trans-activity of PPARγActivated PPARγLin et al. (2012a)
HSCsEliminate effects of AGEsActivated PPARγLin et al. (2012b)
Inhibit αl(l)-collagen gene expression and CTGFActivated PPARγ and interrupted TGF-βZheng and Chen (2006)
HSCsIncrease TNF-α expressionActivated PPARγSiddiqui et al. (2006)
RAW 264 (macrophages) and septic animalsAttenuate oxidative stress, suppressed of Ob-R gene expressionActivated PPAR and interrupted of leptin signalingTang et al. (2009)
HSCsEvaluate ox-LDL and suppress Lox-1 expressionActivated PPARγ and interrupting Wnt signalingKang and Chen (2009)
HSCsSuppress glut2 expression and attenuate oxidative stressActivated PPARγLin and Chen (2011)
Hesperetin (from a citrus)THP-1 (macrophages)Increase ABCA1 expression and activate LXRαActivated PPARγIio et al. (2012)
ABA3T3-L1 (adipocytes) and db/db miceDecrease fasting blood glucose concentration and ameliorate glucose toleranceActivated PPARγGuri et al. (2007)
PGFTHP-1 (differentiated macrophage cells) and Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean ratsDecrease GLUT-4 and improve the insulin receptorsActivated PPARγHuang et al. (2005)
GrapesGrape-fed ratDecrease cardiac TNF-α, TGF-β protein expression, and cardiac fibrosis and increase IκBα expressionActivated PPARγ and NF-κBSeymour et al. (2010)
  • ABA, abscisic acid; ABCA1, ATP binding cassette 1; AChE, acetylcholinesterase; AGE, advanced glycation end product; CTGF, connective tissue growth factor; GLUT, glucose transporter; HSC, hepatic stellate cells; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LXR, liver X receptor; MCAO, middle cerebral artery occlusion; Ob-R, leptin receptor; OGD, oxygen–glucose deprivation; PGF, Punica granatum flower; STZ, streptozotocin; TGF, transforming growth factor; THP-1, a human monocyte cell line; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.