TABLE 6

Phytochemicals that modify SIRT signaling

PhytochemicalTarget Tissue/CellsEffectsInvolved Molecular MechanismReference
Resveratrol (from a red wine)Human health stem cellsAbolish protein deacetylation and autophagyInhibited SIRT 1Pietrocola et al. (2012)
SH-HY5Y cells and PC12 cellsProtect against rotenone-induced apoptosis, enhanced degradation of α-synucleins, and decreased of protein level of LC3-IIInhibited SIRT 1 and AMPKWu et al. (2011)
Dopaminergic neuronsPrevent accumulation of ROS and depletion of cellular glutathioneActivated SIRT 1Okawara et al. (2007)
Mild ischemic stroke–induced ratDecrease blood–brain barrier disruption and edema and increase viabilityInhibited SIRT 1Clark et al. (2012)
3T3-L1 adipocytesReduces triacylglycerol content, C/EBPβ and increase ATGL, CPT-1, and PGC1-α expressionActivated SIRT 1Lasa et al. (2012)
Soleus muscleMaintain soleus mitochondrial capacity, born mineral density, and strength of the femurPreserved SIRT 1Momken et al. (2011)
Decrease MCP-1, ICAM-1 in the retina, retinal 8-OHdG generation, nuclear NK-κB p65Activated SIRT 1Kubota et al. (2009)
Increase cysteine and decrease glutathione, β-amyloid plaque formation, and oxidative stressActivated SIRT 1Karuppagounder et al. (2009)
GSPEHUVECs BATIncrease eNOS expression and NO productionActivated SIRT 1 and AMPK Inhibited SIRT 1Cui et al. (2012)
EGCGPC12 cellsIncrease cell viability, PGC-1α, SOD1, and GPX1 expression and decrease ROS productionActivated SIRT 1Ye et al. (2012)
Red wine polyphenolsHUVECsIncrease p21 protein, eNOS, and COX-2 expressionInhibited SIRT 1Botden et al. (2012)
SilibininPancreatic β cells and STZ-induced diabetic miceDecrease glycosylated hemoglobin A1C, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, blood glucose, autophagy, and apoptosis ratioActivated SIRT 1Wang et al. (2012c)
Rat neonatal cardiac myocytesDecrease LDH release and MDA production and increase SOD and Bcl-2 expressionActivated SIRT 1Zhou et al. (2007)
Myocardial cellsIncrease SOD, mitochondrial membrane potential, and Bcl-2 expression, and decrease Bax expressionActivated SIRT 1Zhou et al. (2006)
BaicalinSH-SY5Y cellsIncrease cell viability and reduce the contents of LDH, NO, and Caspase-3Activated SIRT 1Chen et al. (2011a)
Naringenin (from grapefruit)L6 myotubes and skeletal muscle cellsIncrease glucose uptakeActivated SIRT 1 and AMPKZygmunt et al. (2010)
IcariinNeuronsScavenging effect on free radicals and activate cellular antioxidant enzymes including catalaseActivated SIRT 1Zhang et al. (2010a)
Neurons and middle cerebral artery occlusion in miceIncrease PGC1-αActivated SIRT 1Zhu et al. (2010)
NeuronsIncrease neuronal viability and suppress neuronal death after oxygen and glucose deprivationActivated SIRT 1 and MAPK/p38 pathwayWang et al. (2009)
QuercetinQuercetin-fed miceIncrease mRNA expression of PGC-1α, mtDNA, and cytochrome cActivated SIRT 1Davis et al. (2009)
Elastase/LPS-exposed miceDecrease levels of thiobarbituric acid, lung inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and muc5AC and activity of MMP-9 and MMP-12Activated SIRT 1Ganesan et al. (2010)
GenisteinProstate cancer cellsActivate TSGs and attenuated phosphorylated-Akt and NF-κBInhibited SIRT 1Kikuno et al. (2008)
Silymarin (from a milk thistle)A375-S3 cells (UV-irradiated human malignant melanoma)Decrease Bax expression and cytochrome c and increase ICAD and PARPActivated SIRT 1Li et al. (2007a)
  • AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; ATGL, adipose triacylglycerol lipase; BAT, brown adipose tissue; CPT, carnitine palmitoyltransferase; C/EBP, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein; eNOS, endothelial nitric-oxide synthase; GPX, glutathione peroxidase; GSPE, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract; HUVEC, human umbilical vein endothelial cell; ICAD, inhibitor of caspase activated DNAse; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; LC3-II, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MCP, monocyte chemotactic protein; MDA, malondialdehyde; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; PARP, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; PGC-1α, PPARγ coactivator 1α; STZ, streptozotocin; TSG, tumor suppressor gene.