Opposing catecholamine responses in awake animals

Upward arrows reflect increases, and downward arrows reflect decreases in phasic release. Superscripted letters correspond to the following references. The literature cited in this table is meant to provide notable examples of contrasting signaling and is by no means comprehensive.

StimulusNAc DopaminevBNST Norepinephrine
At rest (transients)PresentaAbsentb
 ICSS-predictive cuecNo effectd
Food reward
 Unexpected foodeNo effectf
 Food-predictive cuegUnknown
 Food omissionhUnknown
Drugs of abuse
 Drug exposureiNo effectj unknown
 Drug-predictive cuekUnknown
 Drug withdrawaljj, Unknown
 Fear cues↑↓nUnknown
 Tail pinch↑↓oo
  • a Robinson et al., 2001; Wightman et al., 2007; Sombers et al., 2009.

  • b Park et al., 2012, 2013; Fox et al., 2016b.

  • c Garris et al., 1999; Cheer et al., 2007a; Owesson-White et al., 2008.

  • d Park et al., 2013.

  • e Roitman et al., 2004, 2008; Cone et al., 2014.

  • f Park et al., 2012.

  • g Day et al., 2010; Brown et al., 2011; Cacciapaglia et al., 2012; McCutcheon et al., 2012; Saddoris et al., 2015b.

  • h Saddoris et al., 2015a.

  • i Budygin et al., 2001; Cheer et al., 2004; Heien et al., 2005; Aragona et al., 2008; Covey et al., 2014; Vander Weele et al., 2014; Fox et al., 2016b.

  • j Fox et al., 2016b.

  • k Phillips et al., 2003; Stuber et al., 2005; Cameron et al., 2014.

  • l Roitman et al., 2008; Park et al., 2012; Twining et al., 2015.

  • m Park et al., 2012.

  • n Badrinarayan et al., 2012.

  • o Park et al., 2015.