TABLE 2 

Summary of the effects of the different hypnotic drugs on the sleep architecture and their potential to induce dependence liability

DrugLatency to Sleep OnsetEffect on NREM SleepEffect on REM SleepSleep EfficiencyDependence Liability
Stage N1Stage N2Stage N3 also referred as SWS
BenzodiazepinesHigh
Z-drugsModerate
RamelteonLow
Tasimelteonn.a.n.a.n.a.Low
Melatonin prolonged-releaseLow
AgomelatineLow
Low-dose doxepinLow
SuvorexantLow
Trazodone↔/↓↔/↓↔/↑↔/↓Low
Amitryptilinen.a.n.aLow
Quetiapine↔↓Low
Olanzapine↔/↑↓/↔/↑Low
Gabapentin↑/↔Moderate
PregabalinModerate
MirtazapineLow
  • ↑: Increase; ↓: decrease; ↔: no change. n.a.: not assessed.