TABLE 1

Clinical factors significantly associated with treatment resistance in unipolar depression according to the studies of the GSRD (European Group for the Study of Resistant Depression)

 Comorbid anxiety disorder (Souery et al., 2007) Comorbid panic disorder (Souery et al., 2007; Zaninotto et al., 2013) Current suicidal risk (Souery et al., 2007; Zaninotto et al., 2013; Balestri et al., 2016) Severity of the current episode (Souery et al., 2007; Balestri et al., 2016) Number of psychiatric hospitalizations (Souery et al., 2007; Zaninotto et al., 2013) Social phobia (Souery et al., 2007) Recurrent episodes vs. single episodes (Souery et al., 2007) Early age of onset (<18 yr) (Souery et al., 2007) Melancholic features (Souery et al., 2007; Zaninotto et al., 2013) Psychotic features (Zaninotto et al., 2013) Nonresponse to first antidepressant treatment lifetime (Souery et al., 2007) Personality disorder (DSM-IV criteria) (Souery et al., 2007) Long duration of the current depressive episode (Zaninotto et al., 2013; Balestri et al., 2016) Outpatient status (Balestri et al., 2016) First-/second-degree psychiatric antecedents (Balestri et al., 2016) Occurrence of adverse effects during the treatment (Balestri et al., 2016) High occupational level (Mandelli et al., 2016)
• DSM-IV, fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.