TABLE 1

Elaborate overview of DA-related chemogenetic behavioral studies categorized by area of research and test model applied and sorted by year of publication

For each study, the chemogenetic vector, target area/cell, rodent species/strain utilized is listed, together with the behavioral effect mediated by each chemogenetic intervention to allow comparison between studies. The respective DREADDs were activated by injection of CNO/SalB, unless stated otherwise. Codes in the index are abbreviated as in the manuscript. The various promoters used in the chemogenetic vectors are denoted by their commonly applied abbreviation. AAVNA: AAV serotype was not reported by authors in the original manuscript.

Area of ResearchTest ModelReferenceChemogenetic VectorTarget Area (Cells)Rodent Species/StrainEffect Mediated by Chemogenetic Intervention
*DIO: double-floxed inverted open reading frame (Cre-dependent)
Locomotor activityNovelty induced locomotor activity and habituationFarrell et al. (2013)BAC: Adora2A-rM3Ds-IRES-mCherryGlobal expression (iMSN)Mouse: transgenic (Adora2a-rM3Ds)↓ locomotor activity
Wang et al. (2013)AAV2/9-CAG-DIO-hM3Dq-2A-mCherryVTA/SN (DAergic)Mouse: DAT-Cre↑ locomotor activity
Vardy et al. (2015)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-KORD-IRES-mCitrineVTA/SN (GABAergic)Mouse: VGAT- Cre↑ locomotor activity
Parker et al. (2016)AAV5-CaMKII-hM4Di-mCherryThalamus (glutamatergic thalamostriatal neurons)Mouse: Dorsolateral striatum, 6- OHDA-lesionedLocomotor recovery of parkinsonian mice; ↑ ambulatory time and average velocity (both by intraperitoneally and intra-dorsolateral striatum CNO), ↓ freezing (intraperitoneally only)
Bellocchio et al. (2016)AAV1/2-CAG-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryDorsal striatum (dMSN or iMSN)Mouse: D1R-Cre, D2R-CreAcute dMSN/iMSN Dq-stimulation: ↑/↓ locomotor activity, Chronic iMSN Dq-stimulation: ↑ locomotor activity
Lemos et al. (2016)AAV2/5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry, AAV8-hSyn-DIO-KORD-IRES-mCitrineDorsal striatum/NAc (iMSN)Mouse: iMSN- D2R KO (Adora2a-Cre background)Locomotor recovery of D2R-KO mice mimicking parkinsonian mice (↑ locomotor activity)
Carvalho Poyraz et al. (2016)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryDorsomedial striatum or NAc (iMSN)Mouse: D2R- OEdev*(D2R-Cre background), D2R-Cre *overexpressing D2R in iMSN↑ locomotor activity
Dobbs et al. (2016)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryNAc (iMSN)Mouse: Adora2aCre↑ locomotor activity
Marchant et al. (2016b)AAV9-CaMKIIα-HA-KORD-IRES-mCitrine, AAV9-CaMKIIα-HA-hM4Di-IRES-mCitrineVTA/SN (DAergic)Rat: WT↓ locomotor activity
Chu et al. (2017)BAC: Adora2A-rM3Ds-IRES-mCherryGlobal expression (iMSN)Mouse: transgenic (Adora2a-rM3Ds)Acute: ↓ locomotor activity Repeated (2 to 3 days): ↓ reduced vesicular glutamate transporter expressing cortico-subthalamic nucleus axon terminals (i.e. parkinsonian phenotype)
Moehle et al. (2017)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryDorsal striatum (dMSN)Mouse: D1R-M4 KO (D1R-Cre background)Inhibits D1R-induced increase in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency – supports important role of muscarinic receptor type 4 Gi-signaling in dMSN neurons by regulating locomotor activity via control of AC/cAMP. N.B. no behavioral experiments performed
Runegaard et al. (2018)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-rM3Ds-mCherry, AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Mouse: TH-CreDi-/Ds-stimulation: ↓/↑ locomotor activity during habituation
Sandhu et al. (2018)AAV1/2-Eifla-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry-WPREVTA (DAergic)Mouse: DAT-Cre↑ locomotor activity
Bouabid and Zhou (2018)BAC: Adora2A-rM3Ds-IRES-mCherryGlobal expression (iMSN)Mouse: transgenic (Adora2a-rM3Ds)↓ locomotor activity (associate with excitation of iMSN and inhibition of globus pallidum neuronal firing)
Habituated/home-cage locomotor activityBlum et al. (2014)AAV8-DIO-hM3Dq–mCherryVTA/SN (DAergic)Mouse: DAT-Cre↑ locomotor activity, ↑ ultradian day rhythms by increased active-phase (CNO applied in drinking water)
Boender et al. (2014)AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry (VTA), CAV2-Cre (NAc)VTA→NAc (DAergic)Rat: WT↑ locomotor activity
Patterson et al. (2015)AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryLateral hypothalamus (neurotensin releasing)Mouse: neurotensin-Cre↑ locomotor activity
Boekhoudt et al. (2016)AAV5-DIO-hSyn-hM3Dq-mCherry (VTA/SN), CAV2-Cre (NAc/dorsomedial striatum)VTA, SN, (DAergic) VTA→NAc, SN→Dorsomedial striatumRat: TH-Cre, WT with CAV2CreVTA and VTA→NAc Dq-stimulation: ↑ long-lasting locomotor activity, SN and SN→dorsomedial striatum stimulation: modest ↑ locomotor activity
Zhu et al. (2016)AAV2-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV2-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryNAc (dMSN or iMSN)Mouse: D1R-Cre, D2R-CreNAc dMSN/iMSN Dq-stimulation: ↑/↓ locomotor activity and running, NAc iMSN Di-stimulation: ↑ locomotor activity and running
Qualls- Creekmore et al. (2017)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryLateral hypothalamus (galaninergic, GABAergic)Mouse: GalaninCre, VGAT-CreGalanin Dq-stimulation: ↑ locomotor activity GABA Dq-stimulation: ↑ locomotor activity and compulsive-like behaviors
Motor coordination and performance assays (Rotarod, cylinder, rotational locomotion, corridor tests, etc.)Dell’Anno et al. (2014)Lentivirus-hM3Dq-IRES-mCherryDorsal striatal transplanted DA neurons induced from fibroblastRat: SN 6- OHDA-lesionedDq-stimulation: ↑ DA release, excitability and motor recovery of hemi-parkinsonian mice
Chen et al. (2016)AAV1-CAG-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV1-CAG-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryDorsal striatum transplanted DA neurons differentiated from human embryonic stem cellsMouse: SN 6- OHDA-lesionedDi-/Dq-stimulation: ↓/↑ graft cell DA release, excitability and motor recovery of hemi-parkinsonian mice
Aldrin-Kirk et al. (2016)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-rM3Ds-mCherry-WPRE, AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-HA, AAV8-hSyn-DIO-KORD-IRES-mCitrineDorsal striatum transplanted DA neurons from TH-Cre rat embryosRat: striatal 6- OHDA-lesionedDq- and Ds-combinatory stimulation: ↑ DA release, excitability and motor performance but also ↑ graft-induced dyskinesia KORD-stimulation: ↓ graft-induced recovery
Alcacer et al. (2017)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV5-hSyn-DIO-rM3Ds-mCherryUnilateral dorsolateral striatum (dMSN or iMSN)Mouse: Adora2aCre, D1R-CreiMSN/dMSN Dq-stimulation: ↓/↑ locomotor activity, ipsi/contralateral rotations enhanced iMSN/dMSN Dq-stimulation in hemi-parkinsonian mice: prevent/mimic L-DOPA’s effect on contralateral forelimb use: ↓/↑ L-DOPA induced dyskinesia dMSN Dq/Ds-stimulation induces abnormal involuntary movements lower than/similar to L-DOPA
Lopez-Huerta et al. (2016)AAV10#-hSyn-hM4Di-mCherry, #selective towards neurons of matrix compartment in striatumDorsolateral striatum (matrix neurons)Mouse: WT↓ accuracy in learned task assaying skilled motor performance
Aldrin-Kirk et al. (2018)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-rM3Ds-mCherry-WPRE, AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-HA, AAV8-hSyn-DIO-KORD-IRES-mCitrineUnilateral dorsal striatum (cholinergic interneurons)Rat: striatal 6- OHDA-lesioned Choline acetyltransferase CreDq/Ds-stimulation: potentiated low dose L-DOPA to reverse parkinsonian phenotype in stepping task (not cylinder task) and increased abnormal involuntary movement following mid and high dose of L-DOPA (via iMSN output)
Motivation and reward guided behaviorsProgressive ratio scheduleBoender et al. (2014)AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry (VTA), CAV2-Cre (NAc)VTA→NAc (DAergic)Rat: WT↑ effort exertion in progressive ratio task
Boekhoudt et al. (2017a)AAV2/5-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryVTA, SN pars compacta (DAergic)Rat: TH-Cre↑ sucrose responding through ↑ initiations of reward-seeking actions
Bobadilla et al. (2017)AAV2-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryNAc (neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) interneurons)Mouse: NOS1- Cre↑ sucrose seeking after extinction ↑ cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose seeking
Action outcome learning taskFerguson and Neumaier (2012)HSV-pDYN-hM4Di-GFPDorsal striatum (dMSN)Rat: WT↓ acquisition of lever pressing for a reward reinforcer
Runegaard et al. (2018)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Mouse: TH-Cre↓ motivation to work for reward in a simple must touch test, no effect on reward preference
High vs. low reward discrimination taskFerguson et al. (2013)HSV-pDYN-HA-rM3Ds, HSV-pDYN-HA-hM4DiDorsomedial striatum (dMSN)Rat: WTDi-stimulation: ↓ acquisition of lever pressing for a reward reinforcer Di-/Ds-stimulation ↓/↑ stable retention of high-reward optimized strategies
Sign-trackingChang et al. (2015)AAV8-hSyn-hM4Di-mCitrineVentral pallidumRat: WT↓ acquisition of sign-tracking behaviors
Progressive ratio schedule, progressive hold-down, outcome devaluationCarvalho Poyraz et al. (2016)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryDorsomedial striatum or NAc (iMSN)Mouse: D2R-OEdev*(D2R-Cre background), D2R-Cre *overexpressing D2R in iMSN↑ motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates in PR and hold-down sessions
Progressive ratio lever-pressing taskGallo et al. (2018)AAVNA- *-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry (Serotype, and promotor information is lacking)NAc (iMSN)Mouse: Drd2-Cre↑ motivation to work for a salient reward by Di stimulation of iMSNs projecting to the ventral pallidum
FeedingHome-cage food intake measurementZhu et al. (2016)AAV2-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV2-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryNAc (dMSN or iMSN)Mouse: D1R-Cre, D2R-CredMSN Dq/Di stimulation in home cage under high energy expenditure conditions: ↑/↓ food intake
Boekhoudt, Roelofs et al. (2017)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry (VTA, SN pars compacta), CAV2-Cre (NAc, PFC or amygdala)VTA, SN, (DAergic), VTA→NAc, VTA→PFC, VTA→amygdalaRat: TH-Cre, WT with CAV2CreVTA Dq- stimulation: ↓ meal size, ↑ locomotor activity. VTA→NAc Dq-stimulation: ↓ mean meal size and eating duration, ↑ mean meal frequency, ↑ locomotor activity
Foldi et al. (2017)AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry (VTA), CAV2-Cre (NAc)VTA→NAc (DAergic)Rat: WT↑ food intake, food anticipatory activity, prevented activity-based anorexia weight loss
High fat vs. regular chow diet choice modelWang et al. (2015)AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry, AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryNucleus tractus solitarius (glucagon-like peptide 1 expressing neurons)Mouse: Phox2b- CreDq/Di-stimulation ↓/↑ high-fat food intake (also by intra-VTA CNO)
Intermittent high fat diet exposure or continuous chow/high fat diet exposureXu et al. (2017)AAVNA-*-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAVNA-*-hM4Di-mCherry, *Assumed DIO, but poor description of viral vectors. Serotype, and promotor information is lackingVTA/SN (DAergic)Mouse: DATCreER* *Tamoxifen inducibleVTA Dq-stimulation: ↓ binge-like eating behaviors, VTA Di-stimulation blocked anti-binge-like eating properties of 5-HT2C receptor agonists
Progressive ratio scheduleQualls- Creekmore et al. (2017)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryLateral hypothalamus (GABAergic, GABA subpopulation with galanin)Mouse: VGAT- Cre, Galanin-CreDq-VGAT/Galanin stimulation: ↑ operant food-seeking behaviors, Dq-VGAT stimulation: ↑ food consumption
Salt-depletion modelSandhu et al. (2018)AAV1/2-Ef1α -DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry-WPREVTA (DAergic)DAT-CreNo effect on salt intake
MatingBehavioral observations during mating, CPP testGoto et al. (2015)AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-rM3Ds-mCherry, AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryDorsal striatum (dMSN or iMSN)Mouse: transgenic biosensor (PKA or ERK) in D1R- or D2R-CredMSN/iMSN Di-stimulation: ↓/↑ mating behaviors, dMSN/iMSN Ds-stimulation: ↑/↓ mating behaviors
Beloate et al. (2016)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Rat: TH-Cre↓ mating-induced cFos in VTA but no effect on initiation, expression and facilitation of sexual behavior, ↓ subsequent amphetamine CPP following withdrawal in sex experienced rats (cross-sensitization of reward)
Sleep-wake patterns and arousalPolysomnography recordingsBellocchio et al. (2016)AAVNA-CAG-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryDorsal striatum (dMSN or iMSN)Mouse: D1R-Cre, D2R-CreAcute iMSN-Dq stimulation: ↑ slow-wave phase sleep, Chronic iMSN-Dq stimulation: ↑ wakefulness
Eban-Rothschild et al. (2016)AAV5-EF1α-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Mouse: TH-Cre↓ wakefulness, ↑ pre-sleep-related behaviors, ↓ wakefulness even in the presence of relevant salient-stimuli cues
Cho et al. (2017)AAV2-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryDorsal raphe nuclei (DAergic)Mouse: TH-Cre↓ wakefulness, ↑ sleep duration
Oishi et al. (2017b)AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryNAc core (iMSN), Vental pallidum (GABAergic)Mouse: A2aR- Cre, GAD2-CreA2a-Dq/Di indirect pathway stimulation in NAc core: slow-wave sleep induction/inhibition of induction, Ventral pallidum-Dq stimulation: ↑ slow-wave sleep, neuronal disinhibition
Oishi et al. (2017a)AAV10-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV10-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryVTA, SN (DAergic)Mouse: DAT-CreVTA Dq-stimulation: ↑ wakefulness duration, ↓ number of wakefulness episodes
Sun et al. (2017)AAV10-hSyn-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV10-hSyn-hM4Di-mCherryVTAMouse: WTDq-stimulation: ↑ wakefulness duration
Luo et al. (2018)AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAVNA-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryNAcD1R-CreDq-stimulation: ↑ arousal/wakefulness, ↓ food intake, nesting behaviors, Di-stimulation: ↑ non-REM sleep, nesting
CPP, immune response assaysBen-Shaanan et al. (2016)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Mouse: TH-Cre↑ innate and adaptive immunity responses against bacterial challenges, mediates CNO-induced CPP
Drug response and addictionAcute stimulant induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitizationFerguson et al. (2011)HSV-pDyn-HA-hM4Di, HSV-pEnk-HA-hM4DiDorsomedial striatum (dMSN or iMSN)Rat: WTdMSN/iMSN Di-stimulation: ↓/↑ behavioral sensitization to amphetamine, no effect on acute response
Farrell et al. (2013)BAC: Adora2a-rM3Ds-IRES-mCherryGlobal expression (iMSN)Mouse: transgenic (Adora2a rM3Ds)↓ amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and sensitization
Kerstetter et al. (2016)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry (medial PFC), CAV2-Cre (NAc)Medial PFC→NAcRat: WT↓ amphetamine-induced locomotion during initiation of sensitization, but no effect on expression, ↑ conditioned locomotor response in amphetamine pre-treated rats
Dobbs et al. (2016)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryNAc (iMSN)Mouse: iMSN- D2R KO (Adora2a-Cre background)Rescues cocaine-induced locomotor response of mice with no D2Rs in iMSN neurons
Marchant et al. (2016b)AAV9-CaMKIIa-HA-KORD-IRES-mCitrine, AAV9-CaMKIIa-HA-hM4Di-IRES-mCitrineVTA/SN (DAergic)Rat: WT↓ cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion
Wasserman et al. (2016)AAVNA-CAG-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAVNA-CAG-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryRostromedial tegmental area (GABAergic)Mouse: GAD2CreDq/Di stimulation: ↓/↑ morphine-induced locomotor activity
Runegaard et al. (2018)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Mouse: TH-Cre↓ cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion (acute), but no effect on cocaine-induced locomotion in sensitized mice and repeated Gi stimulation prior to cocaine do not prevent behavioral sensitization
CPP testPina et al. (2015)AAV5-hSyn-HA-hM4Di-IRES-mCitrineBNSTMouse: WT↓ expression of ethanol place preference
Calipari et al. (2016)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryNAc core (dMSN or iMSN)Mouse: D1R-Cre, D2R-CredMSN Di-stimulation: ↓ cocaine-induced place preference (sustained effect)
Calipari et al. (2017)AAV2-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Mouse: TH-Cre↑ cocaine CPP in male and diestrus female mice (mimicking increased reward processing in estrus female mice)
Pina and Cunningham (2017)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry (BNST), HSV-Cre (VTA)BNST→VTAMouse: WTDisrupt expression of ethanol place preference
Runegaard et al. (2018)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Mouse: TH-CreCocaine CPP unaffected but extinction prolonged
Wayman and Woodward (2018)AAV8-EF1a-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry or AAV8-EF1a-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry (IL), CAV2-Cre (NAc core or NAc shell)IL→NAc core IL→NAc shellRat: WTIL→NAc shell Dq-stimulation: disrupts expression of toluene place preference (reverse Toluene-induced reduced excitability of these projections) IL→NAc core Di-stimulation: no effect on expression of toluene place preference
Self-administration drug/ethanol paradigmBock et al. (2013)AAV1/2-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryNAc core (iMSN)Mouse: Adora2a-Cre↑ motivation to obtain cocaine during progressive ratio testing, no effect on cocaine intake during training
Cassataro et al. (2014)AAV2/5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry, AAV2/5-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV2/5-hSyn-CreNAcMouse: WTDi-stimulation: ↓ ethanol consumption (limited access model)
Bull et al. (2014)AAV5-GFAP-HA-hM3Dq-IRES-mCitrineNAc core (astrocytes)Rat: WTfacilitates intracranial self-stimulation ↓ ethanol self-administration after 3 wk abstinence
Mahler et al. (2014)lentivirus-hSyn-HA-hM4Di-GFP, lentivirus-DIO-hSyn-hM4Di-mCherryRostral and caudal ventral pallidum, VTA/SN (DAergic)Rat: WT, TH-CreRostral/caudal ventral pallidum Di-stimulation: ↓ cue-/prime induced cocaine reinstatement respectively Di in rostral ventral pallidum (unilateral) + VTA (contralateral): ↓ cue-induced cocaine reinstatement
Scofield et al. (2015)AAV5-GFAP-HA-hM3Dq-IRES-mCitrineNAc core (astrocytes)Rat: WT↓ cue-induced cocaine reinstatement (via mGluR2/3 signaling), no effect on cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose seeking
Pascoli et al. (2015)AAV1-CamKIIα-hM4Di-mCherryOrbitofrontal cortex (DAergic)Mouse: DAT-Cre↓ compulsivity and prevented persevered self-stimulation despite punishment
Augur et al. (2016)AAV2-hSyn-HA-hM3Dq-IRES-mCitrine (ventromedial PFC), CAV-2-cre (NAc shell),Ventromedial PFC → NAc shellRat: WT↓ cue-induced cocaine reinstatement after extinction, no effect on prime-dose-induced reinstatement
Cheng et al. (2017)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryDorsomedial striatum (dMSN or iMSN)Mouse: D1R-Cre, D2R-CredMSN Dq/Di stimulation: ↑/↓ ethanol consumption and preference, iMSN Dq/Di stimulation: ↓/↑ ethanol consumption and preference
Kerstetter et al. (2016)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry (medial PFC), CAV-2-Cre (NAc)Medial PFC→NAcRat: WTDi-stimulation during progressive ratio testing: no effect on progressive ratio responding for cocaine but ↑ motivation to seek cocaine during extinction and cocaine-primed reinstatement. Di-stimulation prior to reinstatement: ↓ cocaine-primed reinstatement - only in rats that had Di-stimulation during progressive ratio (normalize)
Marchant et al. (2016a)AAV1-hSyn-DIO-HA-KORD-IRES-mCitrine (ventral Subiculum), AAV5-Cre (NAC shell)Ventral subiculum →NAcRat: WT↓ context-induced ethanol reinstatement
Prasad and McNally (2016)AAV5-hSyn-HA-hM3Dq-IRES-mCitrine, AAV5-hSyn-HA-hM4Di-IRES-mCitrineVentral palladium → STN, VTARat: WTVentral pallidum Di-/Ds-stimulation: ↓/↑ cue- and prime-induced reinstatement of extinguished alcohol seeking Di in ventral pallidum (unilateral) + VTA or STN (contralateral): ↓ cue- and prime-induced alcohol reinstatement
Heinsbroek et al. (2017)AAV2-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry, AAV2-hSyn-DIO-rM3Ds-mCherry, AAV2-hSyn-HA-hM4Di-IRES-mCitrineNAc for Cre-dependent vectors (dMSN or iMSN) Ventral pallidum for the non-Cre dependent vector)Mouse: D1R-Cre, D2R-CredMSN/iMSN Ds-stimulation in NAc: ↑*/no effect on cue-induced reinstatement iMSN Di-stimulation in NAc: ↑* cue-induced reinstatement *reversed by simultaneous Di-stimulation in ventral pallidum
Wunsch et al. (2017)AAV5-hSyn-hM4Di-mCherry, AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherry (Midline thalamic nuclei (MTN)), CAV-2-Cre (NAc)MTN, MTN→NAcRat: WTMTN Di-stimulation: ↓ cue-induced and drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking MTN→NAc Di-stimulation: ↓ cocaine-primed reinstatement, ↑ cue-induced reinstatement
Purohit et al. (2018)AAV2-hSyn-HA-hM3Dq-IRES-mCitrine, AAV2-hSyn-HA-hM4Di-IRES-mCitrineNAc core + shell, NAc core, NAc shell,Mouse: WTNAc core and shell Dq/Di-stimulation: ↓/no effect on ethanol consumption NAc core Dq/Di-stimulation: ↓/↑ ethanol consumption NAc shell D Dq/Di-stimulation: no effect on ethanol consumption
Mood, nociception, and cognitionOpen-field, elevated-plus maze, novelty suppressed feeding, sucrose preference test, forced swim testZhong et al. (2014)AAV8-hSyn-DIO-rM3Ds-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Mouse: Cdk5 KO (DAT-Cre background)↓ anxiogenic-like and depressive-like phenotype of Cdk5 KO mice ↓ immobility time in forced swim test also in control mice (DATCre)
Neuropathic pain model, von Frey and thermal stimulation pain assaysWakaizumi et al. (2016)AAV10-hSyn-hM4Di-mCherry (VTA), NeuRet-Cre* (NAc) *lentiviral vector for neuron-specific retrograde gene transferVTA (DAergic), VTA→NAcMouse: DAT-Cre, WT↓ exercise-induced hypoalgesia (following partial sciatic nerve ligation)
Hot plate, tail-flick assaysLi et al. (2016)AAV8-Ef1α-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryVentral periaqueductal gray/dorsal raphe region (DAergic)Mouse: TH-Cre↓ supraspinal nociceptive effect in hot-plate test, no effect on locomotion and tail-flick test
CPP testFritz et al. (2016)AAV8- hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryVTA (DAergic)Mouse: DATCreER* *Tamoxifeninducible↓ conditioned place aversion to a systemic inflammation agent
5-choice serial reaction time taskBoekhoudt, Voets et al. (2017)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherryVTA/SN pars compacta (DAergic)Rat: TH-CreVTA or SN pars compacta Dq-stimulation: ↑ trial omissions, SN pars compacta Dq-stimulation: ↓ task accuracy
Barnes maze, Acoustic startle reflex, Social approach testLocke et al. (2018)AAVNA-DIO-hM4Di-YFPLateral cerebellar nucleus (D1R expressing neurons)Mouse: D1R-Cre↓ spatial navigation, working memories, ↓ prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response
ElectrophysiologyRobinson and Sohal (2017)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry, AAV5-hSyn-DIO-rM3Ds-mCherry, AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM4Di-mCherryMedial PFC (D2R expressing neurons)Mouse: D2R-CreDs-stimulation: mimicked D2R-induced activation-elicits afterdepolarizations
Fear conditioning paradigmMayer et al. (2018)AAV8-CaMKIIa-hM4Di-mCherryPosterior medial VTA → NAc shell (DAergic)Rat: WTInhibition of relief learning
Bouchet et al. (2018)AAV5-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherrySN pars compacta (DAergic)Rat: TH-CreNo effect on fear extinction acquisition, but enhanced fear extinction memory and blocked the renewal of fear in a novel context
  • BAC, bacterial artificial chromosome; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IL, infralimbic cortex; STN, subthalamic nucleus; VGAT, vesicular GABA transporter.