TABLE 6

Preclinical antinociception drug profile for κ opioid receptor agonists: a negative control

Pain Behavior (Dependent Variable)a
Unconditioned Behavior US→URClassical Conditioning CS+US; CS→UROperant Conditioning SD→R→SC
Pain Stimulus (Independent Variable)PS→URPS→[US→UR]CS+PS; CS→URPS→[CS+US; CS→UR]PS→R→SCSD→R→PSPS→[SD→R→SC]
NoxiousThermal1–4
Mechanical1–3, 5
Chemical1–3, 6, 78, 96107, 11–13
Inflammation+ Thermal8, 9, 14, 159
+ Mechanical15, 16
Spontaneous8
Neuropathy+ Thermal17–20
+ Mechanical19, 20
Spontaneous20
  • Citations are shown to indicate effects produced by systemic administration of centrally acting and pharmacologically selective κ opioid receptor agonists (U50,488, U69,593, enadoline, nalfurafine, GR89696) in different types of preclinical procedures using the designated pain stimulus to produce the designated pain behavior. Fill color indicates predominant drug effects: green, drug usually effective; and red, drug usually ineffective. No fill indicates drug not tested. Citations are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to illustrate typical outcomes.

  • a Numbers correspond to the following references: 1) Seguin et al., 1995; 2) Endoh et al., 1999; 3) Hunter et al., 1990; 4) Barrett et al., 2002a; 5) Barrett et al., 2002b; 6) Bagdas et al., 2016; 7) Negus et al., 2010b; 8) Negus et al., 2015; 9) Neubert et al., 2007; 10) Shippenberg et al., 1988; 11) Negus et al., 2012; 12) Lazenka et al., 2018; 13) Brust et al., 2016; 14) Lomas et al., 2007; 15) Field et al., 1999; 16) Endoh et al., 2000; 17) Xu et al., 2004; 18) Rutten et al., 2014b; 19) Sounvoravong et al., 2004; and 20) Wilkerson et al., 2018.