Table 2

Protein motions, dynamic time domains, and sampling methods

MotionExampleTime domain (sec)Method
VibrationalAtomic fluctuations10−15  to 10−6 Infrared, fluorescence, molecular dynamics simulations
Side chainRing flipping10−12  to 101 Fluorescence anisotropy, EPR, NMR, near UV circular dichroism
Rigid bodyHinge movement10−6  to 102 NMR, X-ray crystallography, hydrogen exchange
GlobalProtein unfolding10−3  to 103 DSC, hydrogen exchange, far-UV circular dichroism
  • Adapted from Brooks et al. (1988) and Jardetzky (1996).

  • DSC, differential scanning microcalorimetry; EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; UV, ultraviolet.