Table 1

G protein effectors regulated by G protein βγ subunits

EffectorG protein typeEffect of G protein βγ subunits
Ion channels
 Inwardly-rectifying K+ channels
  Cardiac KAChchannels1-a PTX-sensitiveStimulation
  Other KGchannels1-b PTX-sensitiveStimulation
 Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels
 Adenylyl cyclase
  Type IInhibition (when activated by G)
  Type IIStimulation (synergistically with G)
  Type IVStimulation (synergistically with G)
 Phospholipase C-β1-3PTX-insensitiveStimulation
 Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinasePTX-sensitiveStimulation
 G protein-coupled receptor kinaseFacilitation of membrane translocation
 Phospholipase A2 PTX-sensitiveStimulation
 MAP kinase (ras-dependent pathway)Stimulation
Unidentified signal transduction pathway
 Pheromon-induced mating (yeast)Stimulation
 Oocytes maturation (starfish)Stimulation
  • 1-a Muscarinic K+ channels.

  • 1-b G protein-regulated K+ channels.