Table 2

Afferents to the DRN

Structure of OriginProjection DensityNeurotransmitter ImpliedReference
Telencephalic afferents
 Retina Foote et al., 1978; Shen and Semba, 1994
 Prefrontal cortexScarcePossibly Ach Arnsten and Goldman-Rakic, 1984
Subcortical forebrain afferents Aghajanian and Wang, 1977
 Diagonal band of broccaModerate-highPossibly Ach Aghajanian and Wang, 1977
Low Kalen et al., 1985
 Stria terminalisScarceAA Aghajanian and Wang, 1977
Kalen et al., 1985
Diencephalic afferents
 Hypothalamic areas
  Lateral areaModerate Sakai et al., 1977; Berk and Filkenstein, 1982
HighAA Kalen et al., 1985
  Dorsomedial areaHigh Sakai et al., 1977
ModerateAA Kalen et al., 1985
  Parvocellular nucleusModerate-low Kalen et al., 1985
  Magnocellular nucleusModerate-low Kalen et al., 1985
  Perifornical areaModerate Sakai et al., 1977
Moderate-low Kalen et al., 1985
  Preoptic areaLow Aghajanian and Wang, 1977
Moderate-low Kalen et al., 1985
  Arcuate nucleusLow Sakai et al., 1977; Saper et al., 1979
  Submammillothalamic nucleusLow Kalen et al., 1985
 Nucleus habenularis
  LateralisHighAA, GABA, Aghajanian and Wang, 1977; Sakai et al., 1977; Herkenham and Nauta, 1977;
  Medialis Substance P Neckers et al., 1979;Stern et al., 1981; Kalen et al., 1985; Nishikawa and Scatton, 1985;Park, 1987; Kalen et al., 1989
Brainstem afferents
 Periaqueductal periventricular grayLowAA Neuropeptides Kalen et al., 1985
 Laterodorsal tegmental nucleusLow Sakai et al., 1977
 VTALow-moderateDA, AA Aghajanian and Wang, 1977;
 Sustantia nigraModerate-low Sakai et al., 1977; Kalen et al., 1985
 Locus ceruleus and subceruleusHighNE Roizen and Jacobowitz, 1976; Sakai et al., 1977; Grzanna and Molliver, 1980; Baraban and Aghajanian, 1981; Kalen et al., 1985
 Nucleus tractus solitarius/A2 ModerateNE Aghajanian and Wang, 1977; Sim and Joseph, 1989; Hebert and Saper, 1992
 Paragigantocellular nucleus/C1, C2-C3 Epinephrine Sim and Joseph, 1989; Hebert and Saper, 1992
 Parabrachial nucleiModerate-high Sakai et al., 1977; Kalen et al., 1985
 Raphe nuclei
  Caudalis linearisLow5-HT Sakai et al., 1977
  DorsalisModerate5-HT Mosko et al., 1977
  Medianus centralis superiorModerate-high5-HT EAA Mosko et al., 1977; Sakai et al., 1977; Aghajanian and Wang, 1977; Kalen et al., 1985, 1988; Vertez and Martin, 1988
  MagnusModerate-high5-HT Sakai et al., 1977; Kalen et al., 1985
 Vestibular nucleiModerate-low Sakai et al., 1977; Kalen et al., 1985
 Prepositus hypoglossyModerate-low Kalen et al., 1985
 Nucleus principalis trigeminiModerate-low Kalen et al., 1985
 Area dorsolateral to inferior oliveModerate-low Sakai et al., 1977; Kalen et al., 1985
Cortical afferents
 Prefrontal cortexModerate-highPossibly Ach, AA Aghajanian and Wang, 1977; Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
Subcortical forebrain afferents
 Lateral septumScarceAA Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
 Diagonal band of broccaModerate-high LowPossibly Ach Noncholinergic Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Kalen and Wiklund, 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
 Stria terminalisScarceAA Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
 AmygdalaModerate-low Hopkins and Holstege, 1978; Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
 Nucleus accumbensLowAA Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
 Ventral pallidumModerate Behzadi et al., 1990
Diencephalic afferents
 Hypothalamic areas
  Dorsomedial areaHighAA Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
  Perifornical areaHighAA Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
  Preoptic areaHighAA Aghajanian and Wang, 1977;Villalobos and Ferssiwi, 1987; Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
  Arcuate nucleus Ventromedial nuclei Tuber cinereumLow Marzienkewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
  Premammillary, tuberomammillary, supramammillary, submammillothalamic nucleiHigh Marzienkewicz et al., 1989;Behzadi et al., 1990
 Nucleus habenularis
  LateralisHighAA Aghajanian and Wang, 1977; Herkenham and Nauta, 1977;
  MedialisLow Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
Brainstem afferents
 Periaqueductal Periventricular grayModerate-highAA Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
 Laterodorsal tegmental nucleusHigh Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989
 VTAModerate-lowDA Aghajanian and Wang, 1977;
 Substantia nigraModerate-low Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
 Interpeduncular nucleusHighAA Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
 Locus ceruleus and subceruleusHighNE Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989
 Parabrachial nucleiModerate Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
 Raphe nuclei
  Caudalis linearisLow5-HT
  Rostralis linearisModerate5-HT Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989
  B9 Moderate-high5-HT/other Stratford and Wirthshafter, 1988
Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989
  DorsalisHigh5-HT Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989;Behzadi et al., 1990; Vertes and Kocsis, 1994
  Pontis, magnusModerate5-HT Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
  ObscurusLow5-HT Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990
  Vestibular nucleiLow Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989
  Motor nuclei: oculomotor, trochlearModerate-low5-HT Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989
  Prepositus hypoglossyModerate-low Marzienkiewicz et al., 1989; Behzadi et al., 1990