Table 2

The chemokine family

Official NameCommon SynonymsOther NamesDatabase Accession NumberSubclass
CXC (α) Chemokines
 CXCL1 GRO1 4q21GROα; MGSA; (mouse) N51/KC2-a; (mouse) MIP-22-a SCYB1; NAP-3; GRO1 oncogene P09341 P12850P10889ELR+ELR+ELR+
 CXCL2 GRO2 4q21Groβ; MIP-2αSCYB2; GRO2 oncogene P19875 N.A.ELR+
 CXCL3 GRO3 4q21Groγ; MIP-2βSCYB3; GRO3 oncogene P19876 N.A.ELR+
 CXCL4 PF4 4q12-q13Platelet factor-4SCYB4 P02776 AB017491 ELR−
 CXCL5 SCYB5 4q13-q21ENA-78SCYB5 P42830 N.A.ELR+
 CXCL6 SCYB6 4q21GCP-2SCYB6 P80162 N.A.ELR+
 CXCL7 PPBP 4q12-q13PBP⇒CTAP-III⇒β-TG⇒NAP-22-b SCYB7; low-affinity platelet factor-4 P02775 N.A.ELR+
 CXCL8 IL8 4q12-q13IL-8SCYB8; MDNCF; NAP-1; LYNAP; NAF; GCP-1 P10145 N.A.ELR+
 CXCL9 MIG 4q21MigSCYB9; (mouse) CRG-10 Q07325 P18340 ELR−
 CXCL10 INP10 4q21γIP-10; (mouse) CRG-2SCYB10 P02778 P17515 ELR−
 CXCL11N.A.4q21.2I-TAC; β-R12-c, IP9, H174SCYB11 U66096 N.A.ELR−
 CXCL12 SDF1 10q11.2SDF-1α; SDF-1β2-d; PBSFSCYB12; TPAR1; TLSF P48061 P40224 ELR−
 CXCL13N.A.4q21BCA-1; BLCSCYB13 AF044197 AF044196 ELR−
 CXCL14N.A.5q31BRAK; bolekineSCYB14NM_004887 AF152377 ELR−
CC (β) Chemokines
 CCL1 SCYA1 17I-309; (mouse) TCA-3(Mouse) SIS-f P22362 P10146 4 Cys
 CCL2 SCYA2 17q11.2-q12MCP-1; MCAF; (mouse) JEHC11 P13500 P10148 4 Cys
 CCL3 SCYA3 17q11-q21MIP-1α; MIP-1αS; LD78α2-e GOS19-1; PAT 464.1; TY-5; SISα P10147 P10855 4 Cys
 NA SCYA3L1 17q11-q21LD78β, MIP-1αPGOS19-2; PAT 464.2 P16619 P10855 4 Cys
 CCL4 SCYA4 17q11-q21MIP-1βACT-2; PAT 744; H400; SIS-γ; LAG-1; HC21; G-26; MAD-5 P13236 P14097 4 Cys
 CCL5 SCYA5 17q11.2-q12RANTESSIS-δ P13501 P30882 4 Cys
 CCL6 (reserved) SCYA6 (Mouse) C10; (mouse) MRP-1N.A. P27784 4 Cys
 CCL7 SCYA7 17q11.2-q12MCP-3NC28; FIC; (mouse) MARC P80098 Q03366 6 Cys
 CCL8 SCYA8 17q11.2MCP-2HC14 P80075 AB023418 4 Cys
 CCL9 (reserved) SCYA9 (Mouse) MRP-2; (mouse) MIP-1γ(Mouse) CCF18N.A. P51670 6 Cys
 CCL10 (reserved) SCYA10 4 Cys
 CCL11 SCYA11 17q21.1-q21.2Eotaxin P51671 P48298 4 Cys
 CCL12 (reserved) SCYA12 (Mouse) MCP-5N.A. Q62401 4 Cys
 CCL13 SCYA13 17q11.2MCP-4Ckβ10; NCC-1 Q99616 N.A.4 Cys
 CCL14 SCYA14 17q11.2CC-1; HCC-1; NCC-2; CCCK-1/CCCK-3; Ckβ1; MCIF Q16627 N.A.4 Cys
 CCL15 SCYA15 17q11.2HCC-2; leukotactin-1 (Lkn-1); MIP-5; CC-2; NCC-3; MIP-1δ Q16663 N.A.6 Cys
 CCL16 SCYA16 17q11.2HCC-4; LEC; NCC-4; LMC; monotactin-1 (Mtn-1); LCC-1; ILINCK AB018249 N.A.4 Cys
 CCL17 SCYA17 16q13TARCSTCP-1 Q92583 AJ242587 4 Cys
 CCL18 SCYA18 17q11.2DC-CK-1; PARC; MIP-4; AMAC-1; ckβ7 P55774 N.A.4 Cys
 CCL19 SCYA19 9p13MIP-3β; ELC; exodus-3; ckβ11 Q99731 AF059208 4 Cys
 CCL20 SCYA20 2q33-q37MIP-3α; LARC; exodus-1; (mouse) ST38 P78556 AB015136 4 Cys
 CCL21 SCYA21 9p136Ckine; SLC; exodus-2; TCA4; ckβ9CAA06653 AF001980 6 Cys
 CCL22 SCYA22 16q13MDC; (mouse) dc/β-ck; (mouse) abcd-1STCP-1 U83171 AJ238238 4 Cys
 CCL23 SCYA23 17q11.2MPIF-1; MIP-3; ckβ8-1 P55773 N.A.6 Cys
 CCL24 SCYA24 7q11.23MPIF-2; eotaxin-2; ckβ6 U85768 N.A.4 Cys
 CCL25 SCYA25 TECK, ckβ15 O15444 O35903 4 Cys
 CCL26 SCYA26 7q11.23Eotaxin-3; MIP-4α AC005102 N.A.4 Cys
 CCL27 SCYA27 9p13ESkine; CTACK; ILC (mouse) ALP; skinkine AJ243542 AF099931 4 Cys
C (γ) Chemokines
 XCL1 SCYC1 1q23Lymphotactin α; SCM-1α; ATACNP_002986 P47993
 XCL2 SCYC2 1q23-q25Lymphotactin β; SCM-1β; ATACNP_003166 P47993
CX3C (δ) Chemokine
 CX3CL1 SCYD1 16q13Fractalkine; (mouse) neurotactinCX3C ligand U91835 AF071549

A systematic chemokine nomenclature, based on protein structure and a previous nomenclature for chemokine gene loci, was developed by A. Zlotnik and O. Yoshie to deal with the proliferation of synonyms that has attended chemokine discovery and was proposed at the Keystone Symposium on Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors, Keystone, CO, 1999. At present, the systematic names refer only to human chemokines, in part because of uncertainties regarding the identity of mouse orthologs. Nevertheless, the table also includes accession numbers and common names for putative mouse orthologs. In cases such as CCL6, CCL9, and CCL12, where a mouse chemokine lacks a known human ortholog, the standard name is reserved for the potential human counterpart, although it may not exist due to lineage-specific gene duplication. In many cases, the same common name applies to human and mouse counterparts. In others, species-specific names are preferentially used to convey substantially different properties, such as a major difference in sequence (e.g., human I-309 versus mouse TCA-3) or length (e.g., mouse JE versus MCP-1). The number in the systematic name for each chemokine matches that in an alias for the corresponding human gene name, and the roots for gene names correspond to protein roots as follows: SCYA = CCL, SCYB = CXCL, SCYC = XCL, and SCYD = CX3CL, where SCY denotes small cytokine; A, B, C, and D denote the chemokine classes in the gene locus; and L denotes “ligand” in the root of the protein name. Thus, for example, SCYB1 is a gene alias for the human chemokine CXCL1. Accession numbers are from the SwissProt database, when available; N.A. indicates not available in any database. A discussion of tissue and cell sources and regulation for the chemokines is beyond the scope of this article but can be found in Oppenheim et al. (2000).

    • 2-a KC and MIP-2 are mouse proteins with similar sequence relatedness to each of the three human Gro proteins.

    • 2-b Sequential N-terminal truncation of PBP produces the chemokines shown. Only NAP-2 has leukocyte chemoattractant activity, specifically for neutrophils.

    • 2-c β-R1 (accession number U59286) is 87% identical in amino acid sequence to I-TAC. The genomic relationship of the two is not yet defined.

    • 2-d SDF-1α and SDF-1β are splice variants of the same human gene but appear to be functionally equivalent.

    • 2-e LD78α and LD78β are products of two closely related human genes that arose by duplication after the human-rodent split. Thus, only a single related gene product, known as MIP-1α, has been found in mouse.