Table 5

Viral chemokines and chemokine receptors

Virus FamilyVirusORFCommon NamesChemokine or Receptor ClassFunctionReferences
γ-Herpesviridae H. saimiri 74ECRF3ELR+ CXCRCalcium flux in vitro Ahuja and Murphy, 1993
HHV8 (KSHV)74ORF 74 KSHV GPCRCC/CXCR (constitutively active)Oncogenic Angiogenic Arvanitakis et al., 1997 Bais et al., 1998
K6vMIP-ICC chemokineAngiogenic CCR8 agonist Boshoff et al., 1997 Endres et al., 1999
K4vMIP-IICC chemokineAngiogenic HIV suppressive Th2 chemoattractant A ntagonist at CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 Boshoff et al., 1997 Kledal et al., 1997 Sozzani et al., 1998b Dairaghi et al., 1999
vMIP-IIICC chemokineN.A.
Mouse γHV687474Putative CXCRN.A. Virgin et al., 1997
Equine HV2E1 74Eotaxin receptor Putative CXCRChemotaxis N.A. Telford et al., 1995;  Camarda et al., 1999
Telford et al., 1995
β-HerpesviridaeHuman CMVUS28US28CC/CX3CRCalcium flux Chemokine sequestration Smooth muscle cell migration Neote et al., 1993 Gao and Murphy, 1994 Bodaghi et al., 1999;  Streblow et al., 1999
UL33UL33Putative CCRN.A. Chee et al., 1990
UL146vCXC-1CXC chemokineNeutrophil calcium flux, chemotaxis, and degranulation; CXCR2 specific Penfold et al., 1999
UL147vCXC-2CXC chemokineN.A. Saederup et al., 1999
Mouse CMVm131/129m131/129 MCK-1/MCK-2CC chemokineVirulence factor. Blocks NK− and T cell response to MCMV in vivo; also proinflammatory early in infection. Mutant virus → reduced viremia C alcium flux (mouse peritoneal macrophages; human CCR3 transfectants) Fleming et al., 1999 Saederup et al., 1999
M33M33Putative CCRVirulence factor Davis-Poynter et al., 1997
Rat CMVR33R33Putative CCRVirulence factor Beisser et al., 1998
HHV6U12U12CCRCalcium flux in vitro Isegawa et al., 1998
U83U83CC chemokineTHP-1 cell chemotaxis Zou et al., 1999
HHV7U12U12Putative CCR Nicholas, 1996
Poxviridae M. contagiosum virus (MCV)MC148MC148RvMCC-1CC chemokineBlocks neutrophil, monocyte, and T cell chemotaxis induced by multiple CC and CXC chemokines Antagonist at CCR2 and CCR8 B locks human hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation Krathwohl et al., 1997 Damon et al., 1998 Dairaghi et al., 1999
Ortho- and leporipoxvirusesB29R (vaccinia)T135-kDa protein vCCI vCKBP vCBP-ICC chemokine binding protein (K d = 0.1–15 nM)Broad-spectrum CC chemokine scavenger A nti-inflammatory in context of vaccinia infection and allergic airway inflammation in guinea pig Graham et al., 1997 Smith et al., 1997 Alcami et al., 1998
MyxomaT7T7 vCBP-IICC chemokine binding proteinBroad-spectrum CC chemokine and γ-IFN scavenger Anti-inflammatory in context of myxoma infection Lalani et al., 1997
Swine poxvirusK2RK2RPutative CCRN.A. Massung et al., 1993
CapripoxvirusQ2/3LQ2/3LPutative CCRN.A. Cao et al., 1995
LentiviridaeHIVtattatCC chemokine mimicMonocyte chemoattractant: CCR2, CCR3 agonist HIV suppressive factor at CXCR4;CCR8 antagonist Albini et al., 1998 Xiao et al., submitted
envgp120Chemokine mimicChemotactic agonist at CCR5 Neuronal apoptosis via CXCR4 Weissman et al., 1997 Hesselgesser et al., 1998b

All molecules listed, except for the poxvirus chemokine binding proteins and HIV Tat, have conserved sequences with cellular chemokines or chemokine receptors (7TM). N.A., not available. Note that the following ORFs are syntenic: U12 of HHV6 and HHV7, M33 of MCMV, and R33 of rat CMV.