Table 1

Shown are examples of liver-specific genes that contain a regulatory element with a HNF-1 binding site. The species of the investigated gene with its regulatory sequence as well as the respective references are indicated. The positions of the HNF-1 binding sites have preferably been taken from published DNase I footprinting studies, if available. The next preference is for chemical modifications, and the last for gel retardation assays. In case of different positional information for both DNA strands, the more upstream position has been taken for the 5′-border and the more downstream position for the 3′-border of the site. If not stated otherwise, the position numbers generally refer to the transcription start site (t.s.s.). Occasionally they may refer to the translation start codon stated as ATG or to a defined restriction site. When the authors emphasized a specific motif within the published regulatory sequence, it is written in capitals whereas the rest of the sequence is written in lowercase letters. → indicates a continuing sequence in the next line.

HNF-1α Binding Sites
GeneRegulatory ElementGene RegionPosition of Binding SiteFirst PositionSpeciesReference
AlbumintGGTTAGtaattactaa−363  to −338 Homo sapiens Liu et al., 1991
GTTTGTTCTTElement eG528  to 547 NheI at −11.4 kb Mus musculus Frain et al., 1990
Aldolase BCAGAGTTATTGAATAAACACCTC−126  to −104t.s.s. Rattus norvegicus Gregori et al., 1993;Tsutsumi et al., 1989
α1-AntitrypsinTGGTTAATATTCACCAgc−86  to −56t.s.s. H. sapiens De Simone and Cortese, 1991
α-FetoproteinTGTTAATTATTGGCAAATTGCCTAACTTC→A−128  to −99t.s.s. Rattus rattus Jose-Estanyol and Danan, 1988
α-FibrinogenAGGACAAAGCCAATPromoter−67  to −54t.s.s. H. sapiens Hu et al., 1995
Apolipoprotein AIIGATATCTATTTAACTGATTTCACCCDistal region I, N−903  to −879t.s.s. H. sapiens Chambaz et al., 1991; Cardot et al., 1993
Apolipoprotein BGTTTATCAGTGACTAGTCATTGATIntron 2, enhancer835  to 876Cap H. sapiens Brooks and Levy-Wilson, 1992
β-FibrinogenCAAACTGTCAAATATTAACTAAAGGGAGβ28 element−103  to −75t.s.s. R. norvegicus Kuo et al., 1991; Xanthopoulos et al., 1991
CYP2E1TGATAGCCAACTGCAGCTAATAATAAACCA−127  to −93t.s.s. R. norvegicus Ueno and Gonzalez, 1990
CRPTTTGTAATAAATAACTCA−175  to −133t.s.s. H. sapiens Majello et al., 1990; Toniatti et al., 1990
CAATGTTGGAAAATTATttacat−80  to −57
Factor VIIIATATTTTAGAGAAGAATTAACCTTTElement A−59  to −35ATG H. sapiens Figueiredo and Brownlee, 1995
IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1)TGCGGCGCTGCCAATCATTAAC−79  to −53t.s.s. H. sapiens Powell et al., 1995
Large surface protein (HBV)TAGTTAATCATTACTTCSPI promoter−93  to −68t.s.s.Human hepatitis B virus Chang et al., 1989
ProthrombinGTGTTCCTGCTCTTTGTCC−941  to −920t.s.s. H. sapiens Chow et al., 1991
Surface antigen (HBV)GTTAATCATTACPre-S1 promoter−93  to −69t.s.s.Human hepatitis B virus Zhou and Yen, 1991
Vitellogenin A2TGAGGTAATtgTTTACACAaAABS element−124  to −85t.s.s. Xenopus laevis Drewes et al., 1991