Table 2

Shown are examples of liver-specific genes that contain a regulatory element with a HNF-3 binding site. The species of the investigated gene with its regulatory sequence as well as the respective references are indicated. The positions of the HNF-3 binding sites have preferably been taken from published DNase I footprinting studies, if available. The next preference is for chemical modifications, and the last for gel retardation assays. In case of different positional information for both DNA strands, the more upstream position has been taken for the 5′-border and the more downstream position for the 3′-border of the site. If not stated otherwise, the position numbers generally refer to the transcription start site (t.s.s.). Occasionally they may refer to the translation start codon stated as ATG or to a defined restriction site. When the authors emphasize a specific motif within the published regulatory sequence it is written in capitals whereas the rest of the sequence is written in lowercase letters. → indicates a continuing sequence in the next line.

HNF-3 Binding Sites
GeneRegulatory ElementGene RegionPosition of Binding SiteFirst PositionSpeciesReference
AlbuminGTTTGTTCTTElement eG528 to 547 NheI at −11.4 kb M. musculus Liu et al., 1991
Aldolase BCAGAGTTATTGAATAAACACCTC−126 to −104t.s.s. R. norvegicus Gregori et al., 1993; Tsutsumi et al., 1989
α1-AntitrypsinAATATTGACTTTG5′-Region−378 to −366t.s.s. M. musculus Samadani and Costa, 1996
α-FetoproteincaAAGTCAATAAag5′-Region−6103 to −6090t.s.s. R. norvegicus Lannoy et al., 1998; Samadani et al., 1996
α2-MacroglobulinGGTATTGACTTTA5′-Region−452 to −442t.s.s. R. norvegicus Samadani and Costa, 1996
Alkaline phosphatasegaTGTTTgttct−953 to −942ATG H. sapiens Ye et al., 1997
Apolipoprotein BCTGTCCTGTTTATCAGTGACTAGTCATTIntron 2, enhancer, element E839 to 935t.s.s. H. sapiens Brooks et al., 1991
892 to 904 Samadani and Costa, 1996
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1TcacaagcaAAACAAActtattttgaacacggIRS (insulin responsive sequence)−168 to −137t.s.s. R. norvegicus Goswami et al., 1994
cactagCAAAACAaactTATTTTGaacac−124 to −96 H. sapiens O'Brien et al., 1995
Phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinaseGtgacacctcacagctgTGGTGTTTTGacaaccagcagIRS (insulin-responsive sequence)−433 to −396t.s.s. R. norvegicus O'Brien et al., 1995; Wang et al., 1996
6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphataseGTCTTTTATTTGCATACTCAPromoter, site III−132 to 112t.s.s. R. norvegicus Lemaigre et al., 1993
Protein CagggccAAGCAAATATTTGTGGttatgga−43 to −15t.s.s. H. sapiens Spek et al., 1995
TransferrinAATCTACAAGTGTTTGCAGCATAGTCATSite A−306 to −297t.s.s. Salmo salar Stenson et al., 2000
Tryptophan oxygenaseTCTATTGATTTAT5′-Region−220 to −208t.s.s. R. norvegicus Samadani and Costa, 1996
TTR (transthyretin, prealbumin)GtTGACTAAgtcaataatcagaatcagElement TRE−111 to −88t.s.s. M. musculus Qian and Costa, 1995
TATTTGTGTAGHNF3-W−140 to −131 Costa and Grayson, 1991
ctgTTCAAACATGtcCTAATACTCTgtctctgcTTR-232 to 46 Samadani et al., 1996
CTAAGTCAATAATHNF3-S−111 to −82 Samadani and Costa, 1996
Tyrosine amino transferaseCcggacgtttCTCAATATTTGCTCtggcaga−10514 to −10484t.s.s. R. norvegicus Nitsch et al., 1993
GGCCAcaaataaaaga−5463 to −5448 Grange et al., 1991; Lemaigre et al., 1993; Rigaud et al., 1991
→TAAG−5377 to −5345
Vitellogenin A2TGAGGTAATtgTTTACACAaAABS element−124 to −85t.s.s. X. laevis Kaling et al., 1991
Vitellogenin B1TGTGTGCPromoter−58 to −52t.s.s. X. laevis Cardinaux et al., 1994
TATTTACPromoter−81 to −75
GCAAACAPromoter−125 to −119