Table 3

Shown are examples of liver-specific genes that contain a regulatory element with a HNF-4 binding site. The species of the investigated gene with its regulatory sequence as well as the respective references are indicated. The positions of the HNF-4 binding sites have preferably been taken from published DNase I footprinting studies, if available. The next preference is for chemical modifications, and the last for gel retardation assays. In case of different positional information for both DNA strands, the more upstream position has been taken for the 5′-border and the more downstream position for the 3′-border of the site. If not stated otherwise, the position numbers generally refer to the transcription start site (t.s.s.). Occasionally they may refer to the translation start codon stated as ATG or to a defined restriction site. When the authors emphasized a specific motif within the published regulatory sequence, it is written in capitals whereas the rest of the sequence is written in lowercase letters. → indicates a continuing sequence in the next line.

HNF-4 Binding Sites
GeneRegulatory ElementGene RegionPosition of Binding SiteFirst PositionSpeciesReference
α1-AntitrypsinCTCAGATCCCAGCCAGTGGACTTAGCCC−134  to −98t.s.s. H. sapiens Monaci et al., 1988
Apolipoprotein CIIITGGGTCCAGAGGGCAAAA5′-enhancer, element 1−745  to −725t.s.s. H. sapiens Bisaha et al., 1995
CAGGTGACCTTTGCCCC3P element−93  to −71 Mietus-Snyder et al., 1992
Biliary glycoproteinCGCCCCAGCACACATGATCAGAFP1 element−158  to −137t.s.s. H. sapiens Hauck et al., 1994
Factor VIIIAAGGTTCTGATTAAAGCAGACTTATGCCPromoter, element E−311  to −279ATG H. sapiens Figueiredo and Brownlee, 1995
Ornithine transcarbamylasegttaGATGAACTTTAAACCTTTGtgatEnhancer, element I76  to 102 HincII R. norvegicus Nishiyori et al., 1994; Murakami et al., 1990
cagCTTAACCTCTGAACTTCTAaggElement IV161  to 185 HincII
TransferrinAACACGGGAGGTCAAAGATTGCGCCCPR I element−76  to −48t.s.s. H. sapiens Schaeffer et al., 1993
TTR (transthyretin, prealbumin)GGCAAGGTTCATatttgtgtagElement HNF4P−156  to −130t.s.s. M. musculus Xanthopoulos et al., 1991
TGCAAGGGTCATElement HNF4D−1  to 10 Sladek et al., 1990