Table 5

Effects of pharmacological/surgical manipulations on footshock-induced reinstatement

Neurotransmitter SystemReferencesType of Procedure; Training Dose (mg/kg/infusion); Schedule; Session Duration (h/day)Cocaine-TrainedHeroin-Trained
CRF
 CRF antagonists:
  D-Phe CRF (0.1–1.0 μg, i.c.v.) Erb et al., 1998 B; 1.0; FR-1; 3 hAttenuation
  D-Phe CRF (10.0–50.0 ng/side, BNST) Erb and Stewart, 1999 B; 1.0; FR-1; 3 hAttenuation
  D-Phe CRF (10.0–50.0 ng/side, AMY) Erb and Stewart, 1999 B; 1.0; FR-1; 3 hNo effect
  α-Helical-CRF (3.0–10.0 μg, i.c.v.) Shaham et al., 1997 B; 1.0; FR-1; 6 hAttenuation
  α-Helical-CRF (1.0–10.0 μg, i.c.v.) Lu et al., 2001 B, CPP, 10 mg/kg, IPAttenuation
 CRF1 receptor antagonists:
  CP-154,526 (15.0 or 30.0 mg/kg, s.c.) Shaham et al., 1998 B; H, 1.0, 3 h; C, 1.0, 9 h; FR-1AttenuationAttenuation
  CP-154,526 (1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) Lu et al., 2001 B, CPP, 10 mg/kg, IPAttenuation
 CRF2 receptor antagonists:
  AS-30 (1.0 or 10.0 μg, i.c.v.) Lu et al., 2001 B, CPP, 10 mg/kg, IPNo effect
Cannabinoids
 Cannabinoid antagonist:
  SR141716A (1.0–3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) De Vries et al., 2001 B; 0.5; FR-1; 2 hNo effect
Corticosterone
  Adrenalectomy Shaham et al., 1997 B; 0.1; FR-1; 6–12 hSome potentiation
Erb et al., 1998 B; 1.0; FR-1; 3 hAttenuation
  Adrenalectomy+ CORT replacement Erb et al., 1998 B; 1.0; FR-1; 3 hNo effect
 Corticosterone synthesis inhibitor:
  Metyrapone (100.0 mg/kg, s.c.) Shaham et al., 1997 B; 0.1; FR-1; 6–12 hNo effect
  Ketoconazole (25.0 or 50.0 mg/kg, i.p.) Mantsch and Goeders, 1999a B; 0.5; FR-4; 2 hAttenuation
Noradrenaline
 α2-Adrenoceptor agonists:
  Clonidine (20.0–40.0 μg/kg, i.p.) Erb et al., 2000 B; 0.5; FR-1, 3 hAttenuation
  Clonidine (10.0–40.0 μg/kg, i.p.) Shaham et al., 2000 B; 0.1; FR-1; 9 hAttenuation
  Clonidine (1.0–3.0 μg, i.c.v.) Shaham et al., 2000 B; 0.1; FR-1; 9 hAttenuation
  Clonidine (1.0–2.0 μg/side, LC) Shaham et al., 2000 B; 0.1; FR-1; 9 hNo effect
  ST-91 (0.5–1.0 μg/side, LC) Shaham et al., 2000 B; 0.1; FR-1; 9 hNo effect
  ST-91 (40 μg/kg, i.p.) Erb et al., 2000 B; 0.5; FR-1; 3 hNo effect
  Lofexidine (50.0–200.0 μg/kg, i.p.) Erb et al., 2000 B; 0.5; FR-1; 3 hAttenuation
  Guanabenz (640.0 μg/kg, i.p.) Erb et al., 2000 B; 0.5; FR-1; 3 hAttenuation
Dopamine
 D1-like receptor antagonist:
  SCH23390 (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) Shaham and Stewart, 1996 B; 0.1; FR-1; 12 hNo effect
 D2-like receptor antagonist:
  Raclopride (0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) Shaham and Stewart, 1996 B; 0.1; FR-1; 12 hNo effect
 Nonselective dopamine antagonist:
  Flupentixol decanoate (3.0 or 6.0 mg/kg, i.m.; chronic exposure) Shaham and Stewart, 1996 B; 0.1; FR-1; 12 hAttenuation
Opioids
 Agonist:
  Chronic heroin (3.0 mg/kg/day) Shaham et al., 1996 B; 0.1; FR-1; 7–12 hNo effect
 Antagonist:
  Naltrexone (1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) Shaham and Stewart, 1996 B; 0.1; FR-1; 12 hNo effect
 NOP receptor ligand:
  Nociceptin (0.1–2.0 i.c.v.) Martin-Fardon et al., 2000 B; 0.25; FR-1; 2 hNo effect
Others
 Acamprosate (50.0–200.0 mg/kg, i.p.) Spanagel et al., 1998 B; 0.1; 4 h; 0.25 (s.c.)No effect
 Leptin (2.0 or 4.0 μg/kg, i.c.v.) Shalev et al., 2001 B; 0.1; FR-1; 9 hNo effect
  • Abbreviations: AMY, amygdala; B, between-session reinstatement procedure; B-W, between-within session reinstatement procedure; C, cocaine; H, heroin; NOP, nociceptin opioid peptide; W, within-session reinstatement procedure.