Mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of melanocortins

Effect Target Cell, Tissue, or Organ Reference
Reduced of production/expression of Proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines Macrophages, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, whole blood, liver Cannon et al., 1986; Chiao et al., 1996, 1997; Lipton and Catania, 1997; Catania et al., 2000a; Luger et al., 2000; Moustafa et al., 2002
Nitric oxide (NO) Macrophages, microglia, melanocytes, keratinocytes Star et al., 1995; Delgado et al., 1998; Altavilla et al., 2000; Gupta et al., 2000; Haycock et al., 2000; Tsatmali et al., 2000
Oxygen peroxide Keratinocytes, melanocytes Haycock et al., 2000
Adhesion molecules (ICAM, VCAM) Endothelial cells, kidney, liver, heart Chiao et al., 1996, 1997; Luger et al., 2000; Gatti et al., 2002; Scholzen et al., 2003
Inhibition of white cell migration Skin, lung, heart, kidney, liver, joints Mason and Van Epps, 1989; Lipton et al., 1994; Catania et al., 1996; Chiao et al., 1996, 1997; Delgado Hernandez et al., 1999; Gatti et al., 2002; Getting et al., 2002