TABLE 3

Connexin expression in vascular cells

Key references indicating the expression of Cx32, 37, 40, 43, and 45 reported in ECs, SMCs, and at the MEJ in cell culture and in vivo. [Apologies to authors of any relevant studies missing from this table.]

SystemCell Type/ LocationCx32Cx37Cx40Cx43Cx45
Cell culture (static/ with flow)ECHUVEC [Im, mRNA, WB (Okamoto et al., 2009, 2011)]HUVEC [Im (Kameritsch et al., 2005)]Mouse cremaster EC [Im, WB (Isakson and Duling, 2005)]Mouse EC [Im, WB (Isakson and Duling, 2005; Straub et al., 2010)]ND (Isakson and Duling, 2005)e
HAEC, HMVEC, PAEC [mRNA (Okamoto et al., 2009)]bEnd [Im (Pfenniger et al., 2012)]HUVEC [Im, mRNA, WB (Okamoto et al., 2009, 2011; Straub et al., 2011)]Bovine aortic EC [mRNA (Hirschi et al., 2003)]
Mouse EC [Im (Isakson and Duling, 2005)]HAEC, HMVEC, PAEC [mRNA (Okamoto et al., 2009)]
bEnd, increased with flow [Im, mRNA, WB (Pfenniger et al., 2012)]Decreased expression in sheer stress models [WB (Feaver et al., 2008)]
Sheer stress and stretch increases Cx43 in bEnd cells (Kwak et al., 2005)
MEJaNDMouse cremaster VCCC, EC side only [Im (Isakson and Duling, 2005)]Mouse cremaster VCCC, EC side only [Im (Isakson and Duling, 2005; Isakson, 2008)]EC and VSMC [Im, WB (Isakson and Duling, 2005; Straub et al., 2010)]ND
HUVEC/HUVSMC VCCC [WB (Straub et al., 2011)]
SMCNDMouse aortic [Im, WB (Isakson and Duling, 2005; Johnstone et al., 2012b)]NP mouse cremaster VSMC [Im (Isakson and Duling, 2005; Isakson, 2008)]HUVEC [WB (Straub et al., 2011)]Mouse aortic (Johnstone et al., 2012b)
Mouse and rat aortic [Im, WB (Johnstone et al., 2009b, 2012b; Straub et al., 2010)]
Resistance/ muscular arteriesbECNDMouse/rat cremaster [Im (Sandow et al., 2006; Isakson et al., 2008)]Mouse/ Rat cremaster [Im (Mather et al., 2005; Sandow et al., 2006; Isakson et al., 2008)]Mouse cremaster [Im (Isakson et al., 2008; Straub et al., 2010)]Mouse cremaster [Im (Isakson et al., 2008)]
Mouse renal [Im (Braunstein et al., 2009)]Mouse renal [Im (Braunstein et al., 2009)]Mouse renal [Im (Braunstein et al., 2009)]NP in transgenic mouse GFP reporter (Schmidt et al., 2012)
Rat basilar artery [Im (Haddock et al., 2006)]Mouse afferent arteriole [Im (Zhang et al., 2006a; Sorensen et al., 2012)]Rat basilar artery [Im (Haddock et al., 2006)]Mouse lung [Im (Wang et al., 2012)]
Mouse afferent arteriole [Im (Zhang et al., 2006a; Sorensen et al., 2012)]Rat Basilar artery [Im (Haddock et al., 2006)]Mouse efferent arteriole ECs, lost in transgenic eNOS-null diabetic mice [Im (Zhang et al., 2006a)]
MEJfNDMouse/rat cremaster [Im (Sandow et al., 2006; Isakson et al., 2008)]Mouse/rat cremaster [Im (Mather et al., 2005; Sandow et al., 2006; Isakson et al., 2008)]Mouse/rat cremaster, also present as Cx43-pS368 [Im (Isakson et al., 2008; Straub et al., 2010)]NP, Mouse/ rat cremaster [Im (Isakson et al., 2008)]
Rat Basilar artery [Im (Haddock et al., 2006)]Rat basilar artery [Im (Haddock et al., 2006)]NP Rat basilar artery [Im (Haddock et al., 2006)]
SMCNDMouse cremaster [Im (Isakson et al., 2008)].NP-mouse cremaster [Im (Isakson et al., 2008)]Mouse cremaster [Im (Isakson et al., 2008; Straub et al., 2010)]Mouse cremaster [Im (Isakson et al., 2008), present in transgenic mouse GFP reporter (Schmidt et al., 2012)]
Rat basilar artery [Im (Haddock et al., 2006)]NP-rat basilar artery [Im (Haddock et al., 2006)]Rat basilar artery [Im (Haddock et al., 2006)]
Mouse afferent arteriole [Im (Zhang et al., 2006a)]Mouse afferent arteriole [Im (Zhang et al., 2006a)]
Conduit arteriescECNP-mouse aorta [Im (Lopez et al., 2009)]Mouse carotid, decreased in mice at regions of turbulent flow [Im (Pfenniger et al., 2012)]Mouse aorta and Carotid [Im (Kwak et al., 2002; Johnstone et al., 2009b; Koval et al., 2011)]Mouse carotid [Im (Johnstone et al., 2009b)]Mouse aorta and carotid [Im (Johnstone et al., 2009b; Koval et al., 2011)]
Human femoral [Im (Bol et al., 2013)]Human femoral [Im (Bol et al., 2013)]Cx43 is increased in aorta of hypertensive rat carotid [Im (Haefliger et al., 2004)]
Decreased in ApoE−/− mice [Im (Johnstone et al., 2009b)].Human femoral artery [Im (Bol et al., 2013)]
SMCNP, mouse aorta [Im (Lopez et al., 2009)]NP, mouse carotid [Im (Kwak et al., 2002; Johnstone et al., 2009b)]NP, mouse carotid [Im (Johnstone et al., 2009b)]Mouse carotid [Im (Johnstone et al., 2009b)]Mouse carotid [Im (Johnstone et al., 2009b)]
Low levels in human femoral artery [Im (Bol et al., 2013)]Human femoral artery [Im (Bol et al., 2013)]Human femoral artery [Im (Bol et al., 2013)]
Increased in ApoE−/− mouse carotid and aorta [Im (Johnstone et al., 2009b)]Increased.
Expression in ApoE−/− mouse aorta/carotid [Im (Johnstone et al., 2009b, 2012b)]
Conduit veinsECMouse inferior vena cava [Im (Okamoto et al., 2009)]Rat cranial/ caudal vena cava [Im (Inai and Shibata, 2009)]Rat cranial/caudal vena cava [Im (Inai and Shibata, 2009)]Rat cranial/caudal vena cava [Im (Inai and Shibata, 2009)]Rat cranial/caudal vena cava [Im (Inai and Shibata, 2009)]
Human saphenous vein [Im (Bol et al., 2013)]Human saphenous vein [Im (Bol et al., 2013)]Low levels in human saphenous vein [Im, WB (Deglise et al., 2005; Bol et al., 2013)]human saphenous vein [Im, WB (Deglise et al., 2005)]. Expression lost in 14 week ApoE−/− mice aorta/ carotid [Im (Kwak et al., 2002)]
Expression lost in 14 week ApoE−/− mice aorta/ carotid [Im (Kwak et al., 2002)]
SMCMouse inferior vena cava [Im (Okamoto et al., 2009)]Low levels in human saphenous vein [Im, mRNA (Deglise et al., 2005; Bol et al., 2013)]Human saphenous vein [Im, mRNA, WB (Deglise et al., 2005; Bol et al., 2013)]Rat cranial/caudal vena cava [Im (Inai and Shibata, 2009)].Low levels in human saphenous vein ]mRNA (Deglise et al., 2005)]
Significant increase in human saphenous vein [Im, mRNA, WB (Deglise et al., 2005; Inai and Shibata, 2009; Bol et al., 2013)]
  • Im, immunodetection, e.g., immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, immunolabeling coupled to transmission-electron microscopy, ND, not determined; NP, not present; VCCC, vascular cell coculture (in vitro); WB, Western blot.

  • a Refers to the in vitro MEJ as described (Heberlein et al., 2010).

  • b Resistance/muscular arteries refers to vessels where EC and VSMC make contacts, i.e., MEJ. These include cremasteric, mesenteric, pulmonary and thoracodorsal.

  • c Conduit vessels, e.g., aorta, carotid, coronary artery

  • d Typically only found in sheer stress regions of the vascular.

  • e Several reports suggest poor antigenicity and specificity of Cx45 antibody (Theis et al., 2004; Isakson et al., 2006b).

  • f For table of MEJ identified in vivo, see review (Sandow et al., 2012).