TABLE 4

Reported effects of amylin that are not extensively covered in this review and their potential therapeutic area

Potential Therapeutic AreaKey FindingsReferences
Depression/anxietyReduced immobility in forced swim testRoth et al., 2009; Turek et al., 2010
Increased hippocampal neurogenesis
Reduced restraint stress-induced sucrose consumption and hyperthermia
Reduced marble burying
Memory enhancementIncreased retention under conditions of “weak” conditioning but impaired retention under “strong” conditioning in T-mazeFlood and Morley, 1992; Zhu et al., 2015
Improved learning and memory
ADDecreased brain Aβ levelsAdler et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2015
Improved performance in memory and cognition in preclinical disease models
Increased markers of synaptic formation and decreased markers of inflammation and oxidative stress within hippocampus
Antipsychotic/schizophreniaIntra-accumbens infusion reversed amphetamine-induced prepulse inhibition disruptionBaisley et al., 2014
PainAnalgesic effects in models of visceral pain when administered peripherallyBouali et al., 1995; Gebre-Medhin et al., 1998b; Sibilia et al., 2000; Huang et al., 2010
Antinociceptive effects linked to reduced spinal c-Fos expression
No effects on tail immersion when given centrally
Amylin knockout mice have reduced nociception
OsteoporosisIn a streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of diabetic osteopenia, addition of amylin improved bone indices apparently by both inhibiting resorption and stimulating bone formation.Cornish et al., 1998; Horcajada-Molteni et al., 2000, 2001; Dacquin et al., 2004; Gutierrez-Rojas et al., 2013
Amylin knockout mice have increased bone resorption (decreased bone mass/density, trabecular bone volume) but normal osteoblast and bone formation rates
Osteogenic actions depend on diabetic status (effective in low-dose STZ type 2 diabetic but not insulin-resistant preclinical models)