Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the placebo response in RCTs in neurologic disorders, pain syndromes, and in psychiatric disorders

Note that this list is incomplete, as it reports only the meta-analysis with the largest number of studies included for the respective disease.

StudyN*DiseasePR Is Higher with…**
Rheims et al., 200832Epilepsy (children, adults)younger age
Fulda and Wetter, 200836Restless Leg Syndromelonger trial duration
Goetz et al., 200811*Parkinson's Diseasehigher baseline severity
Diener et al., 199915Migrainehigher drug probability
Macedo et al., 200698MigraineEuropean studies
Hauser et al., 201172Fibromyalgia syndromelower baseline severity
Hauser et al., 201270Diabetic neuropath painlower baseline severity
Capurso et al., 20127Pancreatitismore study sites
Papakostas and Fava, 2009182Depression, adultshigher drug probability
Bridge et al., 200912Depression, childrenmore study sites
Agid et al., 201350Psychosisyounger age, more recent trials
Yildiz et al., 201138Bipolar maniamore study sites, female sex
Cohen et al., 201040MDD, OCD, ANX (children)children than in adolescents
Newcorn et al., 200910ADHD (children)comorbid MDD, non-white
Buitelaar et al., 20122*ADHD (adults)higher baseline severity
Blom et al., 201410*Binge Eating Disorderlower baseline severity
  • ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ANX, anxiety disorder; MDD, major depressive disorder; OCD, obsessive compulsive disorder; PR, placebo response.

  • * Indicates availability of individual patient data; number of RCTs included into analysis.

  • ** Only the most important influential variable listed.