Summary of the phenotype of mice with genetic overexpression of endothelin-1

Animal ModelSite (Cre)PhenotypeReferences
ET-1+Whole bodyLung: chronic inflammation; normal pulmonary pressureHocher et al., 1997, 2000;
Kidney: increased renal cyst formation; renal interstitial fibrosis; glomerulosclerosis; age-dependent salt-sensitive hypertensionShindo et al., 2002; Kalk et al., 2009
ET-1+/+/NOS2−/−Whole bodyincreased blood pressureQuaschning et al., 2008
ET-1+/NOS3−/−Whole bodyelevated blood pressure, reduced heart rateQuaschning et al., 2007, Vignon-Zellweger et al., 2011, 2014
eET-1Endothelium (Tie2-CRE)Vascular endothelial dysfunction; vascular remodeling; increased lipid metabolism gene expression; normal blood pressureAmiri et al., 2004; Simeone et al., 2011
TET-1Endothelium(Tie1-CRE)Elevated blood pressure; endothelial dysfunctionLeung et al., 2004
Apoe−/−eET-1Whole body ApoE knockout, endothelial ET-1 overexpressionHigh-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysms, increase oxidative stress; increase immune cell infiltrationSimeone et al., 2011; Li et al., 2013
Inducible cardiomyocyte ET1+/+Cardiomyocytes (alpha-myosin heavy chain -Cre)Pulmonary and hepatic congestion; heart inflammation and hypertrophyYang et al., 2004
GET-1Astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein-Cre)Normal development; normotensive; larger infarct size in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury; alleviates inflammatory painLo et al., 2005; Hung et al., 2012
ETA ET-1/+Where ETA is expressed, ET-1 will be expressedConstitutive ETA activation; mandibular arch instead of maxillary arch; perinatal deathSato et al., 2008
ET-1 H/+Whole body350% increased expression of ET-1; decreased plasma volume, heavy stiff heartsHathaway et al., 2015
  • ApoE, apolipoprotein E.