AED targets and effect on aggression in patients without epilepsy

Missing data do not necessarily imply that there is no action on a specific target. In particular, research on the effects of novel and recent AEDs on epigenetic regulation and/or gene expression is still ongoing. Unless otherwise specified, mechanism-of-action details may be found in the text of this review, in review articles (Rogawski and Löscher, 2004; Brodie, 2010; Comai et al., 2012b), and/or in the summary of product characteristics for each individual AED.

AEDMain System TargetedOther Possible
Systems TargetedEpigenetic Mechanisms/ Gene ExpressionAntiaggressive in
 Psychiatric Patientsf
CarbamazepineNa+ channelsXX
Eslicarbazepine acetateNa+ channelsXb
LacosamideNa+ channels
LamotrigineNa+ channelsGlutamate (AMPA receptors)XX
OxcarbazepineNa+ channelsX
PhenytoinNa+ channelsXcX
RufinamideNa+ channels
ZonisamideNa+ and Ca2+ channelsGABAXd
EthosuximideT-type Ca2+ channels
GabapentinCa2+ channelsGABA, glutamate (NMDA receptors)X
PregabalinCa2+ channelsGABA
RetigabineK+ channelsGABAa
FelbamateMixedCa2+ channels, NMDA receptors, GABA receptors
TopiramateMixedGABAA receptors, AMPA/kainate receptors, Na+/Ca2+ channelsXX
Clobazam/clonazepamGABA (GABAA receptor)X
LevetiracetamNeurotransmitter release (via SV2A)XX
BrivaracetamNeurotransmitter release (via SV2A)
PerampanelGlutamate (AMPA receptors)
Valproic acidMixedGABA, glutamate (NMDA, AMPA, and kainate receptors), Na+ channelsXX
  • a Treven et al. (2015).

  • b Dezsi et al. (2013).

  • c Hassel et al. (2010).

  • d Ueda et al. (2012).

  • e Tran et al. (1999).

  • f Comai et al. (2012b), Gallagher and Herrmann (2014), and Huband et al. (2010).