Benefits and risks of exposure to caffeine

Data according to Kawachi et al. (1996), Ferré (2008), Goldstein et al. (2010), Nehlig (2010), Lucas et al. (2011), Caldeira et al. (2013), Derry et al. (2014), Panza et al. (2015), Doepker et al. (2016), Zuchinali et al. (2016), Grosso et al. (2017).

SystemBenefitRiskLack of Effect
Central nervous system
Increased alertnessSleep disturbances
Better attentionNervousness
Increased concentrationJitteriness
Increased focusIrritability
Increased energyAnxiety
Improved cognition
Decreased reaction time
Reduction of cognitive failures (improvement of driving performance, reduction of accidents at work)
Improved productivity at work
Reduced fatigue
Improved mood
Feeling of well-being
Headache relief
Prevention of age-related cognitive decline
Prevention of Alzheimer disease
Prevention of Parkinson disease
Cardiovascular system
Protection against strokeSlight blood pressure increases among regular drinkersNo increased risk of total cardiovascular disease
No effect on arrhythmias even in patients at risk
No increased risk of atrial fibrillation
No increased risk of heart failure
No hypertension among regular drinkers in baseline populations
Sports activities
Improvement in team and power-based sports, sustained maximal endurance, resistance and time-trial performanceNo effect in short-term sports activities
Retardation of exhaustion feeling