Studies that have used repetitive TMS as a tool to change alcohol craving

Multiple sessions were given in a single day. This study performed 10 Hz TMS on the superior frontal gyrus and found an increase in craving but did not find a decrease in craving with 1 Hz to the superior frontal gyrus (L, left; R, right).

AuthorSample SizeSite of TMSFrequencySessionsBehavioral Effect?Active Sham Control
De Ridder et al. (2011)1ACC1–35 Hz3 moYesNo
Herremans et al. (2012)15R DLPFC20 Hz1NoBetween groups
Herremans et al. (2013)29R DLPFC20 Hz2NoWithin subject
Hoppner et al. (2011)10L DLPFC20 Hz10NoBetween groups
Mishra et al. (2010)30R DLPFC10 Hz1YesBetween groups
Ceccanti et al. (2015)18dMPFCa20 Hz10YesBetween groups
Herremans et al. (2015)26R DLPFC20 Hz15 (over 4 days)NoNo
Herremans et al. (2016)19R DLPFC14 (over 3 days)Rate-dependent change (ACC)
Hanlon et al. (2017)25L MPFCcTBS1 (3600 pulses)zNoYes, between
  • a Studies used H-coil TMS devices (Brainsway, Jerusalem, Israel). This deep TMS coil geometry has a very different field distribution than the typical figure of eight coils.