TABLE 1

Naturally biased signaling

ReceptorAgonist 1SignalingAgonist 2SignalingReference
GLP-1OxyntomodulinPreferred cAMPGLP-1cAMP/β-Arr1/β-Arr2Jorgensen et al. (2007)
PAC1PACAP1-27cAMP > IP3PACAP1-38IP3 > cAMPSpengler et al. (1993), Blechman and Levkowitz (2013)
CCR7CCL19β-Arr2 > β-Arr1CCL21β-Arr2 ≠ β-Arr1Byers et al. (2008), Hauser and Legler (2016)
P2Y2ATPβ-Arr1 > β-Arr2UTPβ-Arr1 = β-Arr2Hoffmann et al. (2008)
μ-Opioidβ-Endorphinβ-Arr2 > cAMPEndomorphin-2cAMP > β-Arr2Thompson et al. (2015)
CXCR4UbiquitinIP3 > β-Arr2CXCL12IP3/β-Arr2Eby et al. (2017)
Ang II type 1AT-(1-7)β-Arr2 > > GqAng IIGq/β-Arr2Galandrin et al. (2016a), Teixeira et al. (2017)
PAR1APCβ-Arr2 > G proteinThrombinG protein/β-Arr2Roy et al. (2016)
AdenosineA2AInosineERK1/2 > cAMPAdenosinecAMP/ERK1/2Welihinda et al. (2016)
V2RVasopressinProlonged cAMPOxytocinTransient cAMPFeinstein et al. (2013)
  • Ang, angiotensin; APC, activated protein C; Arr, arrestin; AT, angiotensin; P2Y2, purinergic receptor Y2; PAC, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I; V2R, vasopressin receptor 2.