TABLE 1

NOX isoforms: function and potential pathologic role

Functional NOXLoss of FunctionPotential Role of Excessive Activity in Disease
NOX1Increased susceptibility for inflammatory bowel disease (NOX1)Ischemic retinal diseases; atherosclerosis
NOX2Chronic granulomatous disease (NOX2, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, and NCF4), increased incidence of lupus (NOX2, NCF1)Metastasis, acute lung inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, and neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer and Parkinson disease); pancreatitis
NOX3Not described in humans., balance defects due to lack of otoconia in rodents (CYBA, NOXO1, and NOX3)Hearing loss
NOX4Not described in humans, no phenotype in mouse knockoutsStroke, diabetic nephropathy
NOX5Not described in humans, no animal knockouts, not expressed in rodentsCardiovascular disease
DUOX1Not described in humans, no phenotype in mouse knockoutsThyroid cancer
DUOX2, DUOXA2Hypothyroidism (DUOX2, DUOXA2), increased susceptibility for inflammatory bowel disease (DUOX2).Cancer
  • CYBA, cytochrome b-245 light chain; NCF, neutrophil cytosol factor.