TABLE 3

Major similarities or differences between human and rodent EP1–4 or IP receptors

Receptors less frequently reported are shown in parentheses.

System/TissuePoint of ComparisonEmbedded Image ReceptorEmbedded Image Receptor
Whole bodyEP3 protein5 isoforms3/4 isoforms
ImmuneIncreased IL-23 production by DCs and macrophagesEP4/EP2EP4/EP2
PGE2 facilitation of Th17 cell functionEP2, EP4EP2, EP4
PGE2 inhibition of ILC2EP4EP4
PGE2 stimulation of ILC3unidentifiedEP4
PGE2 inhibition of M1 macrophage activityEP4EP4
PGE2 stimulation of M2 macrophage activityEP4EP4
PGE2 induced inhibition of eosinophilsEP2, EP4EP2
CardiovascularPGI2 induced vasorelaxation (in most vessels)IPIP
PGE2 induced vasoconstriction (in most vessels)EP3EP1 (EP3)
PGE2 induced vasorelaxation in pulmonary veinEP4EP2 (EP4)
PGE2 induced vasorelaxation in pulmonary arteryNo relaxationEP2 and/or EP4
PGE2 induced vasorelaxation in renal arteryEP4EP2 and EP4
Vascular tone induced by PGI2 in diabetesIncreased relaxationIncreased contraction, decreased relaxation
Increased expression of receptor in obesityEP3EP3
PGI2 or analog-induced beneficial effect in strokeIPIP
PGE2 increase of endothelial barrierEP4EP4
ThrombosisPGI2 and PGE2 inhibition of platelet aggregationIP (EP4 > EP2)IP (EP4 > EP2)
NeuronalEnhanced neuroinflammation in CNS (including AD, PD, and ALS)unidentifiedEP2 and/or EP4
Enhanced neuroinflammation in CNS (MS)EP2EP2 and/or EP4
Enhanced pain perception in PNS (depending on pain sensation)unidentifiedEP1, EP2, EP4 and IP
Increased expression of receptor in ADEP3EP3
RespiratoryPGE2 induced airway smooth muscle relaxationEP4EP2 in mice, EP4 in rat
Inhibition of allergic lung inflammationEP2 and EP4IP, EP4
Antifibrotic effectEP2 and IP (EP4)EP2 and IP
UrinaryIncreased expression in interstitial cystitisEP1 and EP2 mRNAEP1 and EP2 mRNA
Receptor expression in uretersEP1EP1, EP2 and EP4
Stimulation of renin secretion and renin gene expression in juxtaglomerular cellsEP4EP4
ReproductiveCorpus cavernosum relaxationEP2 and EP4EP4
Uterus contractionEP3EP3
GastrointestinalPGE2 inhibition of acute colitisEP4EP4
Gastric-ulcer protection by EP agonistEP3EP3
Colon contraction induced by PGE2EP1EP1, EP3
Gastrointestinal muscle cells contractionEP1EP1
Gastrointestinal muscle cells relaxationEP4EP4
Bone and jointOsteoblastogenesis stimulated by PGE2EP4EP4 (EP2)
Osteoclastogenesis regulated by PGE2EP2 and EP4EP2 and EP4
IP activation by PGI2 on synovial fibroblastAnti-inflammatoryProinflammatory