TABLE 4

Ontogeny profile of hepatic efflux transporters in humans based on protein and mRNA expression levels

Percentages represent expression/activity relative to adult levels.

TransportersOnset of Expression/ActivityAdult Levels ReachedAge-Related Changes (% of Adult) in Expression/Activity after BirthCommentsReferences
MATE1
 ProteinNR (28 days: 74%)29 days–1yrIncreased slowlyMethods: LC-MS/MSPrasad et al. (2016)
MDR1
 ProteinFetal development (46%–81%)28 daysIncreased slowlyWide variety in values from various publications. Methods: LC-MS/MS (Prasad et al., 2014, 2016; Mooij et al., 2016; van Groen et al., 2018), immunohistochemistry (Cizkova et al., 2005; Konieczna et al., 2011; Abanda et al., 2017), and Western blot (Tang, 2007; Konieczna et al., 2011; Abanda et al., 2017)Cizkova et al. (2005); Tang (2007); Konieczna et al. (2011); Prasad et al. (2014, 2016); Mooij et al. (2016); Abanda et al. (2017); van Groen et al. (2018)
 mRNAFetal development (4%–64%)NR (0–17 yr: 51%)Increased slowlyWide variety in values from various publications. Methods: RT-PCR (Fakhoury et al., 2009; Sharma et al., 2013; Mooij et al., 2014; Abanda et al., 2017) and immunohistochemistry (van Kalken et al., 1992)van Kalken et al. (1992); Fakhoury et al. (2009); Sharma et al. (2013); Mooij et al. (2014); Abanda et al. (2017)
MRP1
 ProteinFetal development (38%)Increased slowlyMethods: LC-MS/MS54 and Western blot71Konieczna et al. (2011); van Groen et al. (2018)
MRP2
 ProteinFetal development (27%–44%)29 days–1 yrIncreased slowlyMethods: LC-MS/MS (Deo et al., 2012; Mooij et al., 2016; Prasad et al., 2016; van Groen et al., 2018), immunohistochemistry (Chen et al., 2005; Cizkova et al., 2005), and Western blot (Tang, 2007)Chen et al. (2005); Cizkova et al. (2005); Tang (2007); Deo et al. (2012); Mooij et al. (2016); Prasad et al. (2016); van Groen et al. (2018)
 mRNAFetal development (3%–50%)NRInconsistent patternMethods: RT-PCR (Chen et al., 2005; Sharma et al., 2013; Mooij et al., 2014)Chen et al. (2005); Klaassen and Aleksunes (2010); Sharma et al. (2013); Mooij et al. (2014)
MRP3
 ProteinFetal development (30%)28 daysIncreased rapidlyMethods: LC-MS/MS (Mooij et al., 2016; Prasad et al., 2016; van Groen et al., 2018) and Western blot (Yanni et al., 2011)Yanni et al. (2011); Mooij et al. (2016); Prasad et al. (2016); van Groen et al. (2018)
BSEP
 ProteinFetal development (30%)28 daysIncreased progressivelyMethods: LC-MS/MS (Mooij et al., 2016; Prasad et al., 2016; van Groen et al., 2018), Western blot (Yanni et al., 2011), and immunohistochemistryChen et al. (2005); Yanni et al. (2011); Mooij et al. (2016); Prasad et al. (2016); van Groen et al. (2018)
 mRNAFetal development (40%)NRNRMethods: RT-PCR (Chen et al., 2005; Sharma et al., 2013)Chen et al. (2005); Klaassen and Aleksunes (2010); Sharma et al. (2013)
BCRP
 ProteinFetal development (94%–235%)28 daysDecreased progressivelyMethods: LC-MS/MS (Prasad et al., 2013; Mooij et al., 2016; Prasad et al., 2016; van Groen et al., 2018), Western blot (Yanni et al., 2011), and immunohistochemistry (Konieczna et al., 2011)Konieczna et al. (2011); Yanni et al. (2011); Prasad et al. (2013); Mooij et al. (2016); Prasad et al. (2016); van Groen et al. (2018)
MDR3
 mRNAFetal development (6%)NRNRMethods: RT-PCRChen et al. (2005); Klaassen and Aleksunes, (2010)
  • NR, not reported; RT-PCR, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.