TABLE 1

Human AKRs and involvement in drug resistance

GeneProtein Names (Aliases)Chromosomal LocalizationSubstrate Specificity
AKR1A1Aldehyde reductase; dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 11p33-p32DL-glyceraldehyde
Melvadate
AKR1B1Aldose reductase7q35Glucose, advanced end glycation products, 4-HNE, reactive carbonyls
AKR1B10Small intestine like aldose reductase; 9-cis-retinal reductase7q33Retinal; reactive carbonyls
AKR1B153-Keto- acyl CoA reductase7q333-Keto-acyl-coA; 9-cis-retinaldehyde
AKR1C13α(20α)-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 1;10p15-10p14Reduction of 20-ketosteroids e.g., progesterone
AKR1C23α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3; dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 2; bile-acid binding protein10p15-10p14Reduction of 3-ketosteroids, dihydroprogesterone, dihydrotestosterone
AKR1C33α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2; 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5; prostaglandin F synthase; dihydrodiol dehydrogenase X10p15-10p14Reduction of 17-ketosteroids; 4-androstene-3,17-dione; estrone; prostaglandin H2; prostaglandin D2
AKR1C43α−hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1; dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 4; chlordecone reductase10p15-10p143-Ketosteroids; bile acid precursors; chlordecone
AKR1D1Steroid 5β-reductase7q32-7q33Delta4-3-Ketosteroids
AKR1E21,5-Andyhro-D-frucose reductase10p151,5-anhydro-D-fructose
AKR6A3Potassium voltage gated channel β-subunit-13q26.1
AKR6A5Potassium voltage gated channel β-subunit-21p36.3
AKR6A9Potassium voltage gated channel β-subunit-317p13.1
AKR7A2Aflatoxin aldehyde reductase1p35.1-
p36.23
Reduction of succinic semialdehyde; acrolein
2-carboxybenzlaldehyde; aflatoxin dialdehyde
AKR7A3Aflatoxin aldehyde reductase1p35.1-p36.23Aflatoxin dialdehyde