Literature overview nutritional components and their effect on the immune system via AHR

ReceptorNutritional ActivatorConcentration and Mode of AdministrationType of StudyModelStimulant/Disease ModelEffectReference
AHRI3C50 µMEx vivoBMDC from AHR+/+, AHR−/− mice and CD4+ T cells from OTII FoxP3egfp C57BL/6 miceLPSReversion of LPS-induced DC surface marker CD11c and decrease in LPS-induced IL-12 release. Increased frequency of Foxp3+ Treg (BMDC-naïve T-cell coculture)(Benson and Shepherd, 2011)
DIM15 µMIn vitroNaive murine CD4+CD62L+ Th cellsAnti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies and shRNA against AHRInhibited expression of estrogen receptor α, GATA3 and IL-4, IL-5, IL-13. Foxp3 upregulation and RORγτ downregulation(Huang et al., 2013)
I3CDiet containing 1000 ppmIn vivoAHR+/+, AHR+/− and AHR−/− C57BL/6j miceClostridium difficileIncreased survival after Clostridium difficile infection, increased Treg, group 3 innate lymphoid cells, and γδ T-cell populations in the gut(Julliard et al., 2017)
I3C or DIM40 mg/kg i.p.In vivoC57BL/6 miceEAE model using AHR antagonist CD223191Reduced inflammatory cells, proinflammatory cytokines, Th17 population, and increased Treg population in lymph nodes and brain(Rouse et al., 2013)
I3C or DIM100 µMIn vitroNaïve murine splenocytesConcanavalin A and AHR antagonist CD223191Suppressed Th17 differentiation and promoted Treg population(Rouse et al., 2013)
I3C or DIM50 mg/kg oral gavageIn vivoAHR+/+ and AHR−/− C57BL/6 miceDelayed type hypersensitivity reaction using methylated bovine serum albumin and
RAR-specific antagonist CH223191
Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, increase in Treg population, and decrease in Th17 population in draining lymph nodes and spleen(Singh et al., 2016)
DIM20 mg/kg i.v.In vivoWT and Rag−/− Thy1.1+ and Thy1.2+ C57BL/6 miceEAE model using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and RAR-specific antagonist CH223191Reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β and inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cells, while maintaining Foxp3 expression and Treg development in brain and spinal cord(Yang et al., 2020)
  • GATA3, GATA-binding protein 3; ROR, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor; shRNA, short hairpin RNA.