Characteristics, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the most advanced SARS-CoV-2 vaccines

For each vaccine, different methods were used to assess immunogenicity and reactogenicity; the data reported in the table are for reference only and not for comparison. Vaccines clinical trial data were retrieved from the World Health Organization COVID-19 vaccine tracker ( Vaccine approval status was retrieved from regulatory agencies websites and McGill University’s COVID-19 vaccine tracker ( Where available, vaccine efficacy estimates assessed in certain countries or against a specific variant are provided.

Vaccine (Manufacturer)ConstructDose
Pivotal Clinical TrialsApproval StatusVaccine Efficacy (%)Neutralizing Antibodies (GMT)T cell ResponseReferences
Inactivated vaccines
CoronaVac (Sinovac Biotech)Whole virion inactivated
Adj: Alum
3 μg
D0, 14
Ph 3 in China, UAE, Turkey, BrazilChina (8-Feb-21)
Approved in 41 countries
Brazil: 50.4%
UAE: 86%
Turkey: 91.25%a
Baseline: 2.0
Postvac: 27.6
NA(Zhang et al., 2021b)
BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm)4 μg
D0, 21
Ph 3 in ChinaEUA in China (31-Dec-20), Approved in 66 countriesChina: 79.34%bBaseline: 2.0
Postvac: 282.7
NA(Xia et al., 2021)
Viral vector vaccines
(Astra Zeneca)
Chimpanzee Ad encoding full length S protein5x1010 vp
D0, 28
D0, 72
Ph 3 in UK, Brazil, RSA
(N = 30,000)
Ph 2: RSA
EUA in UK (30-Dec-20),
EU (29-Jan-21)
Approved in 124 countries
70.4%i (interim analysis)
66.7%i (full analysis)
RSA: 21.9%
Alpha: 70.4%
Beta: 10.4%c
Delta: 67%
Baseline: 20
Postvac: 277
T cells
(Emary et al., 2021; Lopez Bernal et al., 2021; Madhi et al., 2021; Voysey et al., 2021a; Voysey et al., 2021b)
Gam-COVID-Vac (Gamaleya Research Institute)Ad26 (prime) + Ad5 (boost) encoding full length S protein1x1011 vp
D0, 21
Ph 3 in Russia
(N = 33,758)
Russia (5-Dec-20)
Approved in 72 countries
91.6%dBaseline: 1.25
Postvac: 49.25 (frozen);
45.95 (lyophilized)
(Logunov et al., 2021; Logunov et al., 2020)
(CanSino Biologics)
Ad5 encoding full length S protein5x1010 vp
Ph 3 in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia
(N = 40,000)
China (29-Jun-2020)
Approved in 9 countries
65.7%bBaseline: 4.0
Postvac: 18.3
Th1 biased(Zhu et al., 2020a; Zhu et al., 2020b)
(Janssen/ Johnson & Johnson)
Ad5 encoding S-2P additional cleavage site stabilizing mutations5x1010 vp
D0, 56
Ph 3 in the US, Brazil, RSA
(N = 43,783)
EUA in the US (27-Feb-21)
Approved in 75 countries
over 14D postvac: 66.9%
over 28D postvac: 66.1%
US (96% D614G): 72.0%
Brazil (69% Zeta; 31% D614G): 68.1%
RSA (95% Beta): 64.0%e
Baseline: <LLoQ
Postvac: 827
Th1 biased(Sadoff et al., 2021a; Sadoff et al., 2021b)
Nucleic acid-based vaccines
BNT162b2 (BioNTech/Pfizer)Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding S-2P formulated in LNP30 μg
D0, 21
Ph 3 in US, EU, RSA, LATAM (N = 43,548)EUA in the US (11-Dec-20), EU (21-Dec-20)
Approved in 103 countries
Delta: 88%
Baseline: 10
Postvac: 361
Th1 biased
(Chen et al., 2021b; Lopez Bernal et al., 2021; Walsh et al., 2020)
100 μg
D0, 28
Ph 3 in US
(N = 30,420)
EUA in the US (18-Dec-20), EU (06-Jan-2021)
Approved in 76 countries
Delta: 84.8%
Baseline: 4
Postvac: 654.3
Th1 biased(Baden et al., 2021; Jackson et al., 2020; Tang et al., 2021)
Sequence optimized mRNA encoding S-2P formulated in LNP12 ug
D0, 28
Ph 2b/3 in EU, LATAM
(N = 39,693)
47%Baseline: 5
Postvac: 113
NA(CureVac, 2021; Kremsner et al., 2021)
Recombinant protein vaccines
NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax)Full length S-2P + additional cleavage site stabilizing mutations
Adj: Matrix-M1
5 μg
D0, 21
Ph 3 in UK
(N = 30,000; interim analysis:15,000);
Ph 2b in RSA
(N = 4,400)
UK (>50% Alpha): 89.3%
RSA (>90% Beta): 49.4%
wild-type: 95.6%
Alpha: 85.6%
Beta: 60%h
Baseline: 20
Postvac: 3906
Th1 biased(Keech et al., 2020; Novavax, 2021)
(Clover Biopharmaceuticals)
Native-like trimeric S protein
Adj: CpG/ Alum
30 μg
D0, 21
Ph 2/3 in LATAM, Asia, Europe, Africa (N = 22,000)79% (>73% Delta)Baseline: <5
Postvac: 1050
Th1 biased(Clover, 2021; Richmond et al., 2021)
CoVLP (Medicago/GSK)Prefusion stabilized S protein displayed as self-assembling VLPs
Adj: CpG/ AS03
3.75 μg
D0, 21
Ph 3 in US, Canada, UK
(N = 30,000)
NABaseline: 20
56.6 (CpG)
811.3 (AS03)
(Ward et al., 2021)
  • Adj, adjuvant; D, day; postvac, postvaccination; vp; viral particles per vaccine dose; N, number of participants; NA, not available/applicable; UK, United Kingdom; RSA, Republic of South Africa; US, United States; UAE, United Arab Emirates; LATAM, Latin America; Ad, adenovirus; LLoQ, lower limit of quantitation; S-2P, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with prefusion stabilizing mutation; LNP, lipid nanoparticle.

  • Endpoints for assessment of vaccine efficacy were:

  • aMild to severe cases of COVID-19.

  • bNot available.

  • cNucleic acid amplification test-confirmed COVID-19 combined with at least one qualifying symptom (fever ≥37.8°C, cough, shortness of breath, or anosmia or ageusia) more than 14 days after the second dose.

  • dProportion of participants with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 from day 21 after receiving the first dose.

  • ePrevention of moderate to severe/critical COVID-19 confirmed by real time PCR combined with at least one new worsening signs or symptoms.

  • fLaboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with onset at least 7 days after the second dose in participants who had been without serologic or virologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection up to 7 days after the second dose.

  • gPrevention of COVID-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2.

  • hFirst occurrence of PCR-confirmed symptomatic (mild, moderate, or severe) COVID-19 with onset at least 7 days after the second study vaccination in serologically negative (to SARS-CoV-2) adult participants at baseline.

  • iAverage of two regimens.