TABLE 4

Comorbidities of PTE

Conditions/DiagnosesSymptoms
Sensorimotor DeficitsVision disturbancesDifficulty recognizing or processing objects, blurry or lost vision, double vision, loss of depth perception
TinnitusHigh-pitched ringing or buzzing in one or both ears, often associated with hearing loss
Neuropathic itchSkin tingling or pain resulting from nervous system damage
Vestibular agnosiaLoss of vertigo perception and imbalance
Motor deficitsImbalance, changes in ambulatory gait, loss of fine motor skills
Cognitive ImpairmentsMental fatigue and attention impairmentInability to concentrate or focus, even on simple tasks
Short-term memory impairmentInability to recall or remember information to which the subject was recently exposed
Difficulty with critical thinking or problem solvingDifficulty processing, analyzing, evaluating, or synthesizing information to reflect, reason, communicate, or solve problems
Psychiatric DisordersDepression/affective disordersConstant feeling of sadness, loss or interest, and irritability; often associated with fatigue, lack of motivation, difficulty with recall, or suicidal thoughts
AnxietyIntense, excessive, and persistent worry or fear about everyday situations; avoidance; phobias; obsessive compulsive symptoms
PTSDDifficulty recovering after a traumatic event that triggers moments of intense emotional and physical reactions, such as headache, nightmares, pain, flashbacks, amnesia, or difficulty concentrating
ADHDHyperactivity, impaired attention, reduced work speed, and difficulty with working or short-term memory
Sleep DisordersInsomniaDifficulty falling or staying asleep, insufficient number of hours or sleep despite adequate opportunity
ParasomniaNight terrors, sleep walking/talking, confusion arousals, REM sleep behavior disorder
Idiopathic hypersomniaExcessive daytime sleepiness
NarcolepsyOverwhelming daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, sleep-related hallucinations
Sleep apneaSnoring, restlessness, apnea, open-mouth breathing, sleep fragmentation
Circadian rhythm disorderSleep-wake cycle is not aligned with environment/schedule and interferes with daily activities; difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep