TABLE 2

The effects of CO and CORMs on COX

Study ReferenceCO SourcePreparationEffect
(Miró et al., 1998)CO gasAnalysis of lymphocytes from acute CO poisoning patientsInhibition by 76% at 17% of COHb
(Alonso et al., 2003)CO gasIncubation of isolated human muscle mitochondria with 50–500 ppm of COInhibition level: 20%-55%
(D’Amico et al., 2006)Dissolved COHEK293 cells were incubated with 5–20 μM CO solution.CO gas solution incubation for 5 min: normoxic conditions = inhibition by 40% (20 μM CO); hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) = inhibition by 75% (20 μM CO)
(D’Amico et al., 2006)Induced HO-1HO-1 expression was induced by tetracycline in HEK293 cells.HO-1 induction: normoxic conditions = inhibition by 23%; hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) = inhibition by 70%
(Almeida et al., 2012)Dissolved COIsolated mitochondria from rat cerebral cortex and astrocytes were incubated with CO gas solution of various concentrations.Incubation with CO gas solution led to a slight inhibition for a short term (first 5 min) and a long-term activation (up to 60 min in isolated mitochondria and 24 h in astrocytes).
(Queiroga et al., 2011)Dissolved COIsolated mitochondria from mouse liver were treated with CO gas solution.10 μM CO gas solution inhibited COX activity by 50% in the first 10 min and increased COX activity by 20% at 30 min.
(Zuckerbraun et al., 2007)CO gasRAW 267.4 cells were exposed to 250 ppm CO gas for 1 h.COX activity was inhibited by 50%.
(Lo Iacono et al., 2011)CORM-3Isolated mitochondria from rat heart were incubated with CORM-3.100 μM CORM-3 reduced the activity of COX by 50%. However, 20 μM CORM-3 did not show any effects.
(Yang et al., 2020a)CORM-2Human endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were incubated with 25 μM CORM-2.COX activity was not directly measured. Cellular ROS production induced by CORM-2 was diminished by incubating with antimycin A.