Dopamine-mediated immune function

SpeciesCell type/regionReceptors or
proteins involved
modifying agent or method
Immunologic findingMethod(s) of DetectionReference
ChickenMacrophageN/ADopamine (0.1–0.25 μg/mL)↑ Phagocytosis of E. coli and sheep red blood cells
↑ Percentage of Fc-receptor positive macrophages
Phagocytosis assay
Fc-receptor Assay
Ali et al., 1994
Guinea PigMacrophage (spleen)D1-like
Bromocriptine (0.005–0.5 μg/mg)
Leuprolide (0.005–0.5 μg/mg)
Pergolide (0.001–0.25 μg/mg)
Chlorpromazine (0.5–50 mg/kg)
Metochlopramide (0.5–50 mg/kg)
Sulpiride (1–50 mg/kg)
Veralipride (1–50 mg/kg)
Alizapride (1–50 mg/kg)
Cisapride (0.1–5 mg/kg)
↑ Clearance of IgG-sensitized RBCs, in vitro binding of IgG-sensitized RBCs, and cell surface expression of Fcγ by dopamine agonists (opposite effect with dopamine antagonists)Fc-receptor assay
Flow cytometry
Gomez et al., 1999
HumanB-cell (BC-3 cell line)D1-like
N-acyl-dopamine derivatives (5–10 μM)
SCH23390 (10 μM)
Haloperidol (10 μM)
N-acyl-dopamine derivatives reactivated Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (blocked by SCH23390 and haloperidol)Luciferase reporter assayLee et al., 2008
MouseB-cellD3N/A↑ CNS-tropism of pro-inflammatory B-cells with antigen presenting function
↑ CNS homing of anti-inflammatory B-cells without antigen presenting function
Flow cytometryPrado et al., 2021
HumanBrain (striatum, caudate, putamen)D2Methylphenidate (40 mg)↑ Methylphenidate-induced D2 activation after LPS administration compared with placebo11C-raclopride PETPetrulli et al., 2017
HumanT-cell (CD4+CD45RA+)N/ADopamine (1 nM–1 μM)↑ CD3/CD28-stimulated IL-4 and IL-5 in T-cells treated with dopamineELISANakano et al., 2009
HumanDendritic cell (monocyte-derivedD1-like
Sulpiride (100 nM)
Nemonapride (3 nM)
SCH-23390 (1 μM)
↑ IL-5:IFNγ ratio and CCR4 with sulpiride and nemonapride
↓ CXCR3 in co-culture with T-cells
↓ IL-5:IFNγ ratio with SCH-23390
ELISANakano et al., 2009
(HaCa T-cell line)
D2-like DR-independent (β-adrenergic)
Dopamine-dependent oxidative stress
Dopamine (100 nM–100 μM)
Cabergoline (10–100 μM)
Sulpiride at (10–100 μM)
Ascorbic acid (0.1 mM)
↑ IL-6 with dopamine (effect reduced by ascorbic acid and sulpiride)
↑ IL-8 with dopamine
↑ IL-6 with cabergoline (effect blocked by sulpiride)
ELISAParrado et al., 2012
HumanT-cell (PBL, CD4+, and CD8+)D3Quinpirole (100 nM–10 μM)
U-maleate (100 nM–10 μM)
↑ PHA + IL-2-activated IFN-γ and ↓ IL-4 and IL-10 in total and CD4+ T-cells by quinpirole (reversed by U-maleate in total T-cells)
↑ PHA + IL-2-activated IFN-γ in CD8+ T-cells by quinpirole
RT-PCRIlani et al., 2004
HumanLymphocyte (peripheral blood)D1-like
Dopamine-dependent oxidative stress
Dopamine (100 nM–500 μM)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (5 mM)
SCH 23390 (1 μM)
↓ ROS and apoptosis by low-dose dopamine (blocked by SCH 23390)
↑ ROS and apoptosis by high-dose dopamine (blocked by N-acetyl-L-cysteine)
Flow cytometry
Fluorescent assay
Cosentino et al., 2004
HumanLymphocyte (peripheral blood)N/AL-DOPA (10–100 μM)
Dopamine (10–100 μM)
↓ Con-A and PWM-stimulated proliferation by L-DOPA
↓ Con-A-stimulated proliferation and IFNγ by dopamine
3H-thymidine incorporation assayBergquist et al., 1994
HumanMacrophage (monocyte-derived)N/ADopamine (20 nM–20 μM)↑ IL-6 and CCL2
↑ IL-6, CCL2, IL-8 and IL-10 in LPS-treated cells
↓ TNF-a in LPS-treated cells
ELISAGaskill et al., 2012
HumanMacrophage (monocyte-derived)N/ADopamine (1 μM)↑ NLRP3 and IL-1β, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and ATP-induced IL-1β release
↑ Impact of cytomegalovirus on NF-κB activation
Western Blot
Nolan et al., 2020
HumanMacrophage (monocyte-derived)
Microglia (C06 cell line)
D1-likeDopamine (1 μM)↑ CCR5 in both macrophages and microglia D1-like receptors correlate with CCR5 expression in macrophagesFlow cytometry
Western blot
Matt et al., 2021
HumanMacrophage (monocyte-derived)D1-likeDopamine (1 nM–1 μM)↑ IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, CCL2, CXCL8, CXCL9, and CXCL10AlphalisaNolan et al., 2019
HumanMacrophage (monocyte-derived)DATNomifensine (10 μM)↑ IL-6 and TNF-αFlow cytometry
Mackie et al., 2022
HumanMicroglia (primary)N/ADopamine (2.5 μM)↑ Extracellular trapsImmunofluorescenceAgrawal et al., 2021
HumanT-cell (CD4+) coculture with dendritic cells (monocyte-derived);D1-like
SCH23390 (1 μM)
L750667 (1 μM)
↓ IL-17 and ↑ IFNγ with SCH23390
↑ IL-17 and ↓ IFNγ with L750667
ELISANakano et al., 2008
HumanMonocyte (peripheral blood and THP-1 cell line)N/ADopamine (10 nM–2 mM)↓ LPS-stimulated proliferation with high dose dopamine
↓ LPS-induced NF-κB binding to the TNFα promoter
3H-thymidine incorporation assay
Bergquist et al., 2000
HumanMonocyte (THP-1 cell line)D1
Dopamine (1 μM)
SKF 38393 (1–10 μM)
SCH 23390 (100 nM–1 μM)
Promipexole (1–10 μM)
Pnu 177864 (1–10 μM)
PD 168077 (100 nM–1 μM)
L 745.870 (100 nM–1 μM)
↑ NF-κB nuclear translocation with dopamine
↑ CCR5 promoter RNA pol II, CCR5 transcription, CCR5 promoter H3K4me3 and H3K27Ac modifications, and CCR5 protein with dopamine
↓ CCR5 with SKF 38393, Pnu 177864, and L 745.870
↑ CCR5 with SCH 23390, promipexole and PD 168077
Flow cytometry
Basova et al., 2018
HumanNeutrophilD1-independent mechanismDopamine (10–100 μM)
Fenoldopam (1 nM–100 μM)
↑ Apoptosis and phagocytosis by dopamine (not changed by fenoldopam)Flow cytometrySookhai et al., 1999
HumanNK cell (CD56+)D1-likeDopamine (1aM–1 nM)
SCH23390 (1nM–1 μM) SKF38393 (100 nM)
↓ Proliferation with SKF38393 and dopamine
↓ IFNγ with dopamine, SKF38393, and SCH23390
Proliferation assay
Mikulak et al., 2014
HumanOsteoclast (monocyte-derived)D2-likeDopamine (100 pM–1 μM)
Pramipexole (5–500 pg/ml)
Quinpirole (1 nM–100 nM)
Haloperidol (1–10 nM)
↓ TRAP-positive cells with dopamine (mimicked by pramipexole and quinpirole and blocked by haloperidol)
↓ Osteoclast-mediated bone resorption with dopamine and D2-like agonists
TRAP assay
Pit formation assay
Hanami et al., 2013
HumanPeripheral blood mononuclear cellsN/AL-DOPA (10–500 μM)
Dopamine (10 nM–500 μM)
↓ Con A and PWM-stimulated proliferation, IFNγ and IL-4 with L-DOPA and dopamine
↑ Apoptosis with L-DOPA and dopamine
↓ IgM and IgG-producing B-cells with dopamine
3H-thymidine incorporation assay
Bergquist et al., 1997
Dopamine (10 nM–100 μM)
U-maleate (1 μM)
Quinpirole (10–100 nM)
7-OH-DPAT (10–100 nM)
SKF 38393 (10–100 nM)
L-741,626 (100 nM)
↑ TNF-α expression and secretion with dopamine (blocked by U- maleate)
↑ TNF-α with SKF 38393 and 7-OH-DPAT
↑ IL-10 expression and secretion by dopamine (blocked by L-741,626)
↑ IL-10 with SKF 38393 and quinpirole
Besser et al., 2005
Dopamine (1–5 ng/mL)
Eticlopride (not specified)
U99194A (not specified)
↓ CD3-activated proliferation, IL-2, IFNγ and IL-4 (blocked by eticlopride and U99194A)3H-thymidine incorporation assay
Ghosh et al., 2003
HumanT-cellD4PD 168, 077 (1 μM)
ABT 724 trihydrochloride (1 μM)
↓ CD3/CD28-activated proliferation, IL-2 and iERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation with PD 168, 077 and ABT 724 trihydrochloride3H-thymidine incorporation assay
Sarkar et al., 2006
HumanT-cell [CD4+, CD8+, and lymphokine activated killer T-cells (LAK-T)]D1-likeDopamine (10.2–48.6 pg/mL)
SCH23390 (10 ng/mL)
↓ IL-2-induced proliferation of CD3-activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells with high dose dopamine
↓ Cytotoxic ability of LAK-T-cells with dopamine (blocked by SCH23390)
3H-thymidine incorporation assay
Cytotoxicity assay (51Cr release)
Saha et al., 2001
HumanT cell (CD4+ Treg)D1-like
SKF38393 (10 pM)
Pramipexole (50 pM)
↑ Intracellular cAMP with SKF38393
↓ Intracellular cAMP with pramipexole
↓ Proliferation with increasing D1-like activity based on genetic polymorphism
ELISACosentino et al., 2018
HumanT cell (CD4+CD25+ Tregs)D1-likeReserpine (1 μM)
SCH23390 (1 μM)
↓ IL-10 and TGF-β with reserpine (blocked by SCH23390)RT-PCR
Cosentino et al., 2007
HumanT-cell (CD8+)D3Dopamine (10 nM–1 μM)
7-OH-DPAT (100 nM)
U-99194A (100 nM)
↑ Adhesion to fibronectin and ICAM-1 with dopamine and 7-OH-DPAT
↑ Chemotactic migration with dopamine
↑ CCL19-, CCL21-, and CXCL12 -induced chemotaxis with dopamine in naive CD8+ T-cells
Adhesion assay
Chemotaxis assay
Migration assay
Watanabe et al., 2006
HumanT-cell (CD8+)N/ADopamine (1 μM)↑ Adhesion of naïve CD8+ T-cells
↑ Migration of naïve but not CD3/CD28-activated CD8+ T-cells
↓ CD3/CD28 cross-linking, IL-2, Erk1/2 and NF-κB
Flow-through adhesion assay
Migration assay
Strell et al., 2009
HumanT cell (CD8+ Treg)D1-likeDopamine (10 nM)
SKF-38393 (10 nM)
↓ T-cell-mediated proliferation of human PBMCs with dopamine and SKF-38393Flow cytometryNasi et al., 2019
HumanT-cell (naïve)D2
Dopamine (10 nM)
7-OH-DPAT (10 nM)
U-Maleate (10 nM)
Bromocriptine (10 nM)
Pergolide (10 nM)
Butaclamol (10 nM–1 μM)
Haloperidol (10 nM–1 μM)
↑ Adhesion to fibronectin with dopamine and DPAT (blocked by U-Maleate)
↑ Adhesion to fibronectin with bromocriptine and pergolide
↓ Adhesion to fibronectin with butaclamol and haloperidol
T cell adhesion assayLevite et al., 2001
MouseT-cell (CD4+CD25+ Treg,
CD4+CD25- T effectors from spleen or lymph node)
D1-likeDopamine (100 nM–10 μM)
SKF-38393 (10 μM)
SCH-23390 (10 μM)
↓ T effector proliferation in co-culture with Treg with dopamine (mimicked by SKF-38393 and blocked by SCH-23390)
↓ CD3/CD28-activated IL-10 in Tregs with dopamine
↓ Treg adherence to CSPG with dopamine (mimicked by SKF-38393 and blocked by SCH-23390)
3H-thymidine incorporation assay
Adhesion assay
Kipnis et al., 2004
(CD 4+ T-cell)
D4Dopamine (0.1–25 μM)
A412997 (100 nM)
L745870 (300 nM)
↑ Th2 differentiation
Il13 gene expression
Flow cytometry
Wang, Cohen et al., 2019
MouseDendritic cell (bone-marrow derived, D5 KO)D5SKF38393 (1 nM)
SCH23390 (1 nM)
↓ ERK1/2 phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated cells with SKF38393
↓ IL-12 with intracellular dopamine depletion
↓ IL-23 in D5 KO
Western blot
Prado et al., 2012
MouseDendritic cell (bone-marrow derived)D2Haloperidol (5 μg/mL)
SCH23390 (3–5 μg/mL)
L750667 (3–5 μg/mL)
↓ CD80, CD86, MHC ΙІ, CD83 LPS-induced IL-12p40 with haloperidol
↓ T-cell proliferation and IFNγ in co-culture with haloperidol-treated dendritic cells
↓ Dendritic cell maturation with L750667
Flow cytometry
Matsumoto et al., 2015
(bone marrow–derived and RAW264.7 cell line)
D2Haloperidol (10 μM)
L750.667 (10 μM)
↓ LPS-stimulated CD80 in RAW cells and ↓ LPS-stimulated CD80 and CD86 in BMDM with haloperidol
↓ LPS-stimulated IL-1β, IL-6, IL12p40 and NF-κB activity in RAW cells with haloperidol
↓ LPS-stimulated CD80 and IL-6 in RAW cells with L750.667
Flow cytometry
Reporter assay
Yamamoto et al., 2016
MouseMacrophage (bone-marrow derived)D5Dopamine (500 nM–400 μM)↓ Pam3 or S. aureus- induced expression of IL-6 and TNF-α (blocked by D5 knockdown)
↓ S. aureus-induced IL-12
↓ Pam3 or S. aureus-induced phosphorylation of IKK and IkBa
Wu et al., 2020
MouseMacrophage (bone-marrow derived)D1Dopamine (150–250 μM)
A-68930 (20–30 μM)
↓ LPS-primed nigericin stimulated IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1 with dopamine (blocked by D1 knockdown)
A-68930 inhibited nigericin-induced IL-1β secretion
Western blot
Yan et al., 2015
MouseMacrophage (peritoneum and RAW264.7 cell line)D2Dopamine (40–1040 μM)
Eticlopride (50 μM)
↑ TNF-α and IL-12 and ↓ TGF-β, IL-10 and VEGF (blocked by eticlopride or D2 small interfering RNA)ELISAQin et al., 2015
MouseMacrophage (peritoneum and J774.1 cell line)DR-independent (β-adrenergic)Dopamine (100 nM–100 μM)
Propranolol (1–10 μM)
↓ IL-12 p40 expression and release from LPS-stimulated J774.1 cells with dopamine (blocked by propranolol)
↑ IL-10 in both cell types with dopamine (only blocked by propranolol in J774.1 cells)
Hasko et al., 2002
MouseMacrophage (peritoneum)D1Fenoldopam (1 μM)↓ LPS-stimulated TNF-α and MIP-2 with fenoldopamELISABone et al., 2017
MouseMacrophage (peritoneum)D1-like
Bromocryptine (8 mg/kg)
Quinpirole (3 mg/kg)
Sulpiride (100 mg/kg)
SCH-23390 (0.5 mg/kg)
↓ LPS-stimulated TNF-α in plasma and NO in peritoneal macrophages with bromocriptine, quinpirole and sulpiride
↓ LPS-stimulated NO in peritoneal macrophages with SCH-23390
Griess assay
Hasko et al., 1996
MouseMacrophage (RAW264.7 cell line)DR-independent (β- adrenergic)Dopamine (500 nM–50 μM)↑ LPS-induced NO at high concentrations
↓ NO at low concentrations
Griess assay
Western blot
Chi et al., 2003
MouseMacrophage (RAW264.7 cell line)N/ADopamine (10 μM–1 mM)↓ TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS, NLRP3, and caspase-1 mRNA and proteinWestern blot
Liu et al., 2019
MouseMast cell (bone marrow–derived)D1-likeDopamine (100 pM–100 nM)
SCH 23390 (100–1000 nM)
↑ Mast cell degranulation with dopamine (blocked by SCH 23390)β-Hexosaminidase assayMori et al., 2013
MouseMicroglia (BV-2 cell line)D1-like
Isosibiricin (50 μM)
SCH 23390 (1 μM)
Sultopride (1 μM)
↓ IL-1β, IL-18, NLRP3, caspase-1 with isosibiricin (blocked by SCH 23390 and sultopride)ELISA
Western blot
Wang, Yv et al., 2019
MouseMicroglia (BV-2 cell line)N/ADopamine (250 μM)↑ Extracellular trapsImmunofluorescenceAgrawal et al., 2021
MouseMicroglia (N9 cell line)DR-independent (α and β− adrenergic)Dopamine (1 μM)
L-DOPA (1–250 μM)
↓ LPS-stimulated NO with dopamine
↓ LPS-stimulated NO at high concentrations of L-DOPA
↓ iNOS with dopamine
Griess assay
Western blot
Chang and Liu 2000
MouseMicroglia (BV-2 cell line)Dopamine-dependent oxidative stressDopamine (–100 μM)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (10 mM)
↓ LPS-induced NO with dopamine (blocked by N-acetyl-L-cysteine)Griess assay
Western blot
Yoshioka et al., 2016
MouseMicroglia (primary)Dopamine-dependent oxidative stressDopamine (1–100 μM)
Sulpiride (10–30 μM)
Bromocriptine (1–10 μM)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (10 mM)
↓ LPS-induced NO with dopamine (partially inhibited by sulpiride and blocked by N-acetyl-L-cysteine)
↓ LPS-induced NO with bromocriptine
Griess assay
Western blot
Yoshioka et al., 2016
MouseMicroglia (primary and BV-2 cell line)DATDopamine (2 μM)
Benztropine (2 μM)
Vanoxerine (2 μM)
↓ Number of cellular processes, ↑ cell adhesion/spreading, and ↑ vimentin filaments with dopamine
↓ LPS-induced cell spreading and phagocytosis with dopamine
↓ ERK1/2 phosphorylation in activated but not resting cells with dopamine
↑ p38MAPK activity in resting but not activated cells (attenuated by benztropine and vanoxerine)
Phagocytosis assay
Western blot
Fan et al., 2018
MouseMicroglia (primary)D2
Pramipexole (100 nM–100 μM)↑ LPS and IFN-γ-stimulated nitrite releaseGriess assayHuck et al., 2015
MouseMicroglia (primary)D1-like
Dopamine (1–10 μM)
Dihydrexidine (10 μM)
Quinpirole (10 μM)
SCH23390 (10 μM)
Sulpiride (10 μM)
↓ LPS-induced NO with dopamine, dihydrexidine, and quinpirole (blocked by SCH23390 and sulpiride)
↑ Migration with dopamine, dihydrexidine, and quinpirole
Griess assay
Filter assay
Farber et al., 2005
MouseNK cell (spleen)D1-like
SKF38393 (10–100 nM)
Quinpirole (10–100 nM)
SCH23390 (10 nM–1 μM)
Haloperidol (10 nM–1 μM)
↑ Cytotoxicity of NK cells against YAC-1 lymphoma cells with SKF38393 (blocked by SCH23390)
↓ Cytotoxicity of NK cells against YAC-1 lymphoma cells with quinpirole (blocked by haloperidol)
Western blotZhao et al., 2013
MouseOsteoclast (bone marrow–derived)D2-likePramipexole (3mg/kg)↓ Ex vivo osteoclastogenesis in in vivo LPS and pramipexole-treated miceTRAP assayHanami et al., 2013
MPTP (20mg/kg)
SKF38393 (1, 5, 10 μg/kg, 1 nM–1 μM in vitro)
LY171555 (1, 5, 10 μg/kg, 1 nM–1 μM in vitro)
Dopamine (1 nM–1 μM)
↑ LPS or Con A- stimulated proliferation with SKF38393 or LY171555 in vitro and in vivo
↓ LPS or Con A- stimulated proliferation with MPTP in vivo
Proliferation assayTsao et al., 1997
MouseSplenocyteN/AL-DOPA (10–500 μM)
Dopamine (10–500 μM)
↓ ConA and LPS-stimulated proliferation with L-DOPA and dopamine
↓ IL-2, IL-6 and IFNγ with L-DOPA and dopamine
3H-thymidine Iincorporation assay
Flow cytometry
Josefsson et al., 1996
MouseSplenocyteD2-likeL-DOPA (126 mg/kg)
Dopamine (5 μg/kg)
Domperidone (5 mg/kg)
↓ Number of IFNγ-producing cells with dopamine
↑ In vitro Con-A-stimulated proliferation and ↓ number of IFNγ-producing cells with L-DOPA in vivo (blocked by domperidone)
3H-thymidine incorporation assay
Carr et al., 2003
MouseSplenocyte (NK cells and T-cells)DATN/A↓ Splenic NK activity in DAT deficient cells
↓ IFN-γ, IL-10, and proliferation in mitogenic-stimulated DAT deficient T-cells
ELISAKavelaars et al., 2005
MouseMacrophage (peritoneum)DATN/A↑ LPS-stimulated TNF-α and IL-10 in DAT deficient cellsELISAKavelaars et al., 2005
N/ADopamine (10–100 μM)↓ Con-A or LPS-induced splenocyte and thymocyte activation with dopamine3H-thymidine incorporation assayCook-Mills et al., 1995
MouseSplenocyte ThymocyteD1-like
Haloperidol (10 nM–1 μM)
Chlorpromazine (10 nM–1 μM)
Flupentixol (10 nM–1 μM)
↓ Con A-induced splenocyte and thymocyte proliferation with chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and flupentixol
↓ IL-2 with haloperidol, chlorpromazine, flupentixol
3H-thymidine incorporation assayBoukhris et al., 1988
MouseT-cell (CD4+, D3 and D5 KO)D3
PD128907 (5–50 nM)
SKF38393 (20 nM)
↓ IL-2 in CD3/CD28 stimulated D3 and D5 deficient cells
↓ IL-2 in CD3/CD28 stimulated cells with PD128907 and SKF38393
ELISAFranz et al., 2015
MouseT-cell (CD8+)D3Dopamine (10nM–1 μM or 0.1 nmol in 200 μL in vivo)
7-OH-DPAT (100 nM or 0.1nmol in 200 μL in vivo)
U-99194A (100 nM or 20 mg/kg in vivo)
↑ Chemotactic migration with dopamine
↑ Naive T-cell migration to peritoneum with dopamine or 7-OH-DPAT
↓ Naive T-cell homing into lymph nodes with U-99194A
Chemotaxis assay
Migration assay
Flow cytometry
Watanabe et al., 2006
MouseT-cell (mesenteric lymph node)D1-like
SKF38393 (1 nM–10 μM)
SCH23390 (100 nM)
Quinpirole (1 nM–10 μM)
Haloperidol (100 pM–100 nM)
↓ IFNγ with SKF38393 (blocked by SCH23390);
↓ IFNγ and Con A-stimulated proliferation and ↑ IL-4 with quinpirole (blocked by haloperidol)
MTT assay
Cytometric bead array
Huang et al., 2010
MouseT-cell (CD4+, D3 KO)D3N/A↓ IFN-γ and Foxp3 and ↑ Gata3 and IL-4 in Th2-polarized D3 deficient cellsFlow cytometry
Contreras et al., 2016
RatMacrophage (peritoneum)D2-likeDomperidone (10 nM)↓ Oxidative burst and PMA-induced burstFlow cytometryCarvalho-Freitas et al., 2008
RatMacrophage (tumor tissue)D2Dopamine (25–50 mg/kg)
Eticlopride (7.5 mg/kg)
↑ iNOS, CXCL9, TNF-α, IL-12 and ↓ Arginase-1, CD206, TGF-β and IL-10 with dopamine (effects blocked by eticlopride)qPCR
Western blot
Qin et al., 2015
RatMast cell (RBL-2H3 cell line)D1
GLC756 (100 nM–30 μM)↓ IgE-activated TNF-α with GLC756ELISALaengle et al., 2006
RatMicroglia (primary)N/ADopamine (10 μM)↓ LPS-induced NO with dopamineELISA
Griess assay
Farber et al., 2005
RatT-cellD3L-DOPA (30 mg/kg)
Carbidopa (10 mg/kg)
↑ IFN-γ, VLA-4 and CD25 with L-DOPA and carbidopaRT-PCR
Flow cytometry
Ilani et al., 2004
  • ChIP, chromatin immunoprecipitation; iNOS, NO synthase; N/A, not applicable; PMA, phorbol myristate acetate; qPCR, quantitative polymerase chain reaction; RT-PCR, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction; TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VLA-4, very late antigen 4.