TABLE 3

Summary of human studies on the telescoping effect within nontreatment-seeking individuals

SourceDrugSubjectsTelescoping findings: time (in years unless stated otherwise) between events
Alvanzo et al. (2011)Alcohol11862W/9244MW=M: initial use to dependence (4.9 vs. 5.4)
Keyes et al. (2010)Alcohol30125W/23113MW=M: initial use to dependence in overall sample (5.6 and 5.8)
W<M:initial use to dependence in cohort 2 only (3.7 vs. 4.2)
W<M:dependence to treatment in overall sample (6.1 vs. 7.0) and in one of 5 cohorts (cohort 5, 19.4 vs. 23.5)
Huggett et al. (2018)Alcohol,
Tobacco
1477W/1297MW≤M: initial alcohol use to dependence (3.3 vs. 3.8a)
W=M: initial tobacco use to dependence (4.5 vs. 4.5)
Khan et al. (2013)Cannabis1217W/2080MW<M:initial use to dependence (2.2 vs. 2.6)
Ehlers et al. (2010)Cannabis177W/172MW<M:initial use to dependence (44.7 vs. 49.3)
Sofuoglu et al. (1999)Cocaine21W/23M Study 1
12W/11M Study 2
W<M:initial use to dependence in two human laboratory studies (Study 1, 9.2 vs. 11.3; Study 2, 7.4 vs. 13.0)
O'Brien and Anthony (2005)Cocaine59488W/54753MW<M:initial use to dependence (defined by risk within 24 months of first use, W 3–4 times more likely than M)
Slutske et al. (2015)Gambling2662W/2001MW>M: initial gambling to weekly/problematic gambling, disordered gambling symptoms, and diagnosis of disordered gambling (8.6 vs. 8.1, 10.9 vs. 8.3, 12.9 vs. 10.9)
DiFranza et al. (2002)Tobacco679W/MbW<M:days from monthly smoking to dependence symptoms (21 days vs. 183 days)
Scragg et al. (2008)Tobacco14925W/10070MbW<M:initial use to dependence (W had less use than M prior to symptoms onset)
DiFranza et al. (2007)Tobacco647W/599MbW=M: days from initial use to nicotine/tobacco dependence, symptoms, and autonomy loss (no sex effect, data not stated)
Sylvestre et al. (2018)Tobacco471W/368MbW<M:initial use to dependence symptoms (21 days vs. 183 days)
Thorner et al. (2007)Tobacco378W/261MbW<M:initial use to daily use (0.9 vs. 1.3)
Stoltman et al. (2015)Opioids165W/389MW=M: initial heroin use to problematic use (2.1 vs. 2.5)
Back et al. (2011)Opioids12W/12MW<M:initial use to regular use (5.0 vs. 8.1)
  • M, men; n.s., nonsignificant; W, women.

  • aTrend for significant difference (P < 0.1).

  • bConducted in children/adolescents.