TABLE 2

Summary of human studies on the telescoping effect within treatment-seeking individuals

SourceDrugSubjectsTelescoping findings: time (in years unless stated otherwise) between events
Diehl et al. (2007)Alcohol106W/106MW<M:regular use to dependence (10.0 vs. 11.6)
W< dependence to treatment (4.5 vs. 7.9)
Johnson et al. (2005)Alcohol785W/1252MW<M: regular use to problematic use in the older (30+; 7.6 vs. 10.9), but not younger age group (< 29; 4.9 vs. 5.2)
Randall et al. (1999)Alcohol419W/1307MW<M:regular use to problematic use (0.9 vs. 2.3)
W<M:loss of control over use to severe alcohol-related problems (5.5 vs. 7.8)
W<M:regular use to seeking treatment (11.6 vs. 15.8)
Lewis and Nixon (2014)Alcohol257W/274MW<M:milestones (first use, first intoxication, regular use, problematic use) to treatment (18.1 vs. 23.0, 15.5 vs. 20.7, 13.0 vs. 18.2, 10.3 vs. 14.5)
W=M: milestones (first use, first intoxication, regular use) to problematic use/dependence (8.9 vs. 9.7, 6.3 vs. 7.4, 3.2 vs. 4.5)
Ashley et al. (1977)Alcohol135W/736MW<M:problematic use to treatment (14.1 vs. 20.2)
Hesselbrock et al. (1985)Alcohol90W/231MW<M:initial use to problematic use/dependence (7.4 vs. 15.0)
Piazza et al. (1989)Alcohol33W/105MW<M:problematic use to treatment (10.4 vs. 14.7)
W=M: initial use to first intoxication (2.9 vs. 1.7)
W=M: first intoxication to problematic use (14.0 vs. 14.7)
Mann et al. (1992)Alcohol14W/51MW<M:initial use to treatment (3.8 vs. 9.2)
Mann et al. (2005)Alcohol42W/34MW<M:problematic use/dependence to treatment (5.6 vs. 10.4)
McCance-Katz et al. (1999)Alcohol,
Cocaine
92W/206MW<M:initial alcohol use to treatment (8.8 vs. 11.4)
W<M:initial cocaine use to treatment (5.2 vs. 5.8)
Hernandez-Avila et al. (2004)Alcohol,
Cannabis,
Opioids
156W/115MW<M:regular alcohol use to treatment (14.5 vs. 19.0)
W<M:regular cannabis use to treatment (13.0 vs. 18.0)
W<M:regular opioid use to treatment (8.0 vs. 12.0)
Griffin et al. (1989)Cocaine34W/95MW<M:initial use to treatment (9.0 vs. 10.2)
White et al. (1996)Cocaine27W/60MW<M:initial use to problematic use (1.6 vs. 3.3)
W<M:initial use to treatment (5.1 vs. 10.4)
Haas and Peters (2000)aAlcohol,
Cocaine,
Cannabis
42W/118MW< M: initial cocaine use to problematic use (4.3 vs. 9.8)
W=M: initial alcohol or cannabis use to problematic use (2.2 vs. 1.9)
Lewis et al. (2014)Cocaine,
Cannabis,
Opioids
288W/255MW=M: regular cocaine use to problematic use (1.1 vs. 1.8)
W<M:regular opioid use to problematic use (0.5 vs. 2.7)
W<M:regular cannabis use to problematic use (0.7 vs. 2.0b)
Tavares et al. (2003)Gambling70W/70MW<M:milestones (social, intense, and problematic gambling) to treatment (5.0 vs. 7.9, 0.8 vs. 4.3, 1.9 vs. 6.7)
Ladd and Petry (2002)Gambling45W/70MW<M:problematic gambling to treatment (4.4 vs. 14.6)
Ibanez et al. (2003)Gambling22W/47MW<M:initial gambling to problematic gambling (4.2 vs. 11.0)
Grant et al. (2012)Gambling34W/37MW<M:initial gambling to problematic gambling (8.3 vs. 12.0)
Brecht et al. (2004)Meth154W/196MW<M:initial use to regular use (1.6 and 2.6 yearsb)
Peltier et al. (2021)Opioids2794W/45614MW<M:age diagnosed with OUD (44.9 vs. 51.0)
Anglin et al. (1987)Opioids264W/282MW<M:months from initial use to daily use (14 vs. 21)
Adelson et al. (2018)Opioids494W/762MW<M:initial heroin use to treatment (12.9 vs. 14.8)
Hser et al. (1987)Opioids264W/282MW<M:months from daily use to treatment (82.5 vs. 98.0)
  • M, men; Meth, methamphetamine; n.s., nonsignificant; W, women.

  • aThis treatment population underwent forced treatment due to a drug court program.

  • bTrend for significant difference (P < 0.1).