TABLE 2

Overview of advantages and disadvantages of EV separation techniques

Separation TypeTimePurityScalabilityRecoverySuitability for Functional Heterogeneity Studies
UltracentrifugationSize/density++/−++
Density gradient centrifugationDensity/size+++
Size exclusion chromatographySize+/−++/−+/−+
Asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionationSize, charge+/−++/−++++
UltrafiltrationSize++/−+++
Microfluidic techniquesSize+++
Affinity-based methodsSpecific markers+/−++
Anion exchange chromatographyCharge+/−++/−++
  • +, positive trait; −, negative trait.