Catecholamine neurotransmission plays a key role in regulating a variety of behavioral and physiologic processes, and its dysregulation is implicated in both neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Over the last four decades, in vivo electrochemistry has enabled the discovery of contrasting catecholamine regulation in the brain. These rapid and spatially resolved measurements have been conducted in brain slices, and in anesthetized and freely behaving animals. In this review, we describe the methods enabling in vivo measurements of dopamine and norepinephrine, and subsequent findings regarding their release and regulation in intact animals. We thereafter discuss key studies in awake animals, demonstrating that these catecholamines are not only differentially regulated, but are released in opposition of each other during appetitive and aversive stimuli.
- Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics